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Download Chapter 10 Lesson 2 Nutrients
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Nutrients Chapter 5 Lesson 2 Objectives • Be able to list the 6 basic nutrients and the components of each nutrient • Identify how many calories come from carbohydrates, fat and protein Basic Nutrients 6 categories • As an energy source • To sustain growth • To heal, and build and repair tissue • To help transport oxygen to cells • To regulate body function Carbohydrates 45-65% of your daily calories • • • • Starches & sugars present in foods – turned into glucose Body’s preferred source of energy Provides 4 calories Classified as simple, complex, & fiber – Simple – sugars (fructose, lactose) – Complex – starches • Body must break complex carbs into simple carbs to be used • Fiber – – – – Indigestible complex carbohydrate Found in fruits, vegetables, & whole grains Helps move waste through the digestive system May reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes • What are the 3 classifications of carbohydrates? Proteins made up of chemicals called amino acids 10-15% of total daily calories • • • • Basic building material of all body cells Help build & maintain body cells Provide 4 calories Classified as complete & incomplete – Complete or Essential • Contain all 9 essential amino acids that the body doesn’t make – Incomplete or Nonessential • Lack 1 or more essential amino acids • What are the 3 classifications of carbohydrates?? • What are the 2 classifications of proteins?? Fats (lipids) • • • • Fatty substance that does not dissolve in water Provide 9 calories Some is necessary for good health Several types – Saturated • Solid @ room temperature • Mainly animal based foods – Unsaturated • Liquid @ room temperature • Lowers the risk of heart disease – Trans fats – formed through hydrogentation • Packaged baked goods Fats less than 25-35% of daily calories • Cholesterol - waxy, fatlike substance – Some is needed to build cell walls and Vitamin D – Too much builds up in your arteries increasing the risk of heart disease • What are the 3 types of carbohydrates?? • What are the 2 types of proteins?? • What are the 3 types of fats?? Vitamins • Compounds that help regulate many vital body processes • Classified as water or fat soluble – Water soluble • Dissolved in water & pass easily through the digestive system – Fat soluble • Absorbed, stored & transported in fat • Too many can be harmful What are the types of… Carbohydrates?? Proteins?? Fats?? Vitamins?? Minerals • Substances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones & teeth – Too little could result in osteoporosis later in life • Bone mass builds the most rapidly for ages 10-20 • Regulate many vital body processes What are the types of… Carbohydrates?? Proteins?? Fats?? Vitamins?? Minerals?? Trick question! • There’s only 1 type of minerals Water 20% comes from food Teens should get 9-13 cups/day • • • • • • • • Vital to every body function moving food through the digestive system. digesting carbohydrates and protein, and aiding other chemical reactions in the body. transporting nutrients and removing wastes. storing and releasing heat. cooling the body through perspiration. cushioning the eyes, brain, and spinal cord. lubricating the joints.