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Chapter 5 Lesson 2
• Be able to list the 6 basic nutrients and the
components of each nutrient
• Identify how many calories come from
carbohydrates, fat and protein
Basic Nutrients
6 categories
• As an energy source
• To sustain growth
• To heal, and build and repair tissue
• To help transport oxygen to cells
• To regulate body function
45-65% of your daily calories
Starches & sugars present in foods – turned into glucose
Body’s preferred source of energy
Provides 4 calories
Classified as simple, complex, & fiber
– Simple – sugars (fructose, lactose)
– Complex – starches
• Body must break complex carbs into simple carbs to be used
• Fiber
Indigestible complex carbohydrate
Found in fruits, vegetables, & whole grains
Helps move waste through the digestive system
May reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes
• What are the 3 classifications
of carbohydrates?
made up of chemicals called amino acids
10-15% of total daily calories
Basic building material of all body cells
Help build & maintain body cells
Provide 4 calories
Classified as complete & incomplete
– Complete or Essential
• Contain all 9 essential amino acids that the body
doesn’t make
– Incomplete or Nonessential
• Lack 1 or more essential amino acids
• What are the 3 classifications of
• What are the 2 classifications of
Fats (lipids)
Fatty substance that does not dissolve in water
Provide 9 calories
Some is necessary for good health
Several types
– Saturated
• Solid @ room temperature
• Mainly animal based foods
– Unsaturated
• Liquid @ room temperature
• Lowers the risk of heart disease
– Trans fats – formed through hydrogentation
• Packaged baked goods
less than 25-35% of daily calories
• Cholesterol - waxy, fatlike substance
– Some is needed to build cell walls and
Vitamin D
– Too much builds up in your arteries increasing
the risk of heart disease
• What are the 3 types of
• What are the 2 types of proteins??
• What are the 3 types of fats??
• Compounds that help regulate
many vital body processes
• Classified as water or fat soluble
– Water soluble
• Dissolved in water & pass easily
through the digestive system
– Fat soluble
• Absorbed, stored & transported in fat
• Too many can be harmful
What are the types of…
• Substances that the body cannot manufacture
but that are needed for forming healthy bones &
– Too little could result in osteoporosis later in life
• Bone mass builds the most rapidly for ages 10-20
• Regulate many vital body processes
What are the types of…
Trick question!
• There’s only 1 type of
20% comes from food
Teens should get 9-13 cups/day
• Vital to every body function
moving food through the digestive system.
digesting carbohydrates and protein, and aiding
other chemical reactions in the body.
transporting nutrients and removing wastes.
storing and releasing heat.
cooling the body through perspiration.
cushioning the eyes, brain, and spinal cord.
lubricating the joints.