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Food and Nutrition
Food and Energy
Why do you need to eat food?
 To
obtain energy!!
The energy available in food can be measured by
burning it. When you burn it the energy is converted
to heat which can be measured.
Calorie is equal to 1000 calories,
The amount of heat needed to raise the
temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree
Celsius is called a calorie
Dietary calories is represented with a capitol C.
Calorie is equal to 1000 calories
The science of nutrition is the study of food and
its effects on the body
Nutrients are substances in food that supply the
energy and raw materials your body uses for
growth, repair, and maintenance.
Nutrients the body needs are water,
carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and
Water is the most important nutrient
Every cell in the human body needs water
because many of the body’s processes,
including chemical reactions, take place in
Humans need to drink at least 1 liter of water
each day to avoid being dehydrated.
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy
for the body
 Simple sugars are smaller molecules
(monosaccharide and disaccharides) found in
fruits, honey and sugar cane
 Complex carbohydrates are larger molecules
(polysaccharides) found in potatoes, grains, and
 These
get broken down into simple sugars
Fats or lipids are an important for making cell
membranes, myelin sheaths, and certain
Consuming more fat than you need can lead to
high blood pressure, heart disease, obesity, and
Proteins supply raw materials from growth and
repair of structures such a skin and muscle.
Proteins are also involved in regulatory and
transport functions
Examples include insulin, a hormone that
controls blood sugar levels and hemoglobin
which helps the blood transport oxygen
Vitamins are organic molecules that help
regulate body processes often working with
Vitamins obtained from food we eat
Minerals are inorganic nutrients that the body
needs, usually small amounts
Examples are calcium, iron, and magnesium
Nutrition and a Balanced Diet
The basic idea behind a balanced diet is to eat
a variety foods each day and limit your intake of
fatty, sugary foods