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Transcript
Food and Nutrition
38-1
Food and Energy

Why do you need to eat food?
 To
obtain energy!!

The energy available in food can be measured by
burning it. When you burn it the energy is converted
to heat which can be measured.

Calorie is equal to 1000 calories,

The amount of heat needed to raise the
temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree
Celsius is called a calorie

Dietary calories is represented with a capitol C.

Calorie is equal to 1000 calories

The science of nutrition is the study of food and
its effects on the body
Nutrients

Nutrients are substances in food that supply the
energy and raw materials your body uses for
growth, repair, and maintenance.

Nutrients the body needs are water,
carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and
minerals
Water

Water is the most important nutrient

Every cell in the human body needs water
because many of the body’s processes,
including chemical reactions, take place in
water

Humans need to drink at least 1 liter of water
each day to avoid being dehydrated.
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy
for the body
 Simple sugars are smaller molecules
(monosaccharide and disaccharides) found in
fruits, honey and sugar cane
 Complex carbohydrates are larger molecules
(polysaccharides) found in potatoes, grains, and
vegetables

 These
get broken down into simple sugars
Fats

Fats or lipids are an important for making cell
membranes, myelin sheaths, and certain
hormones.

Consuming more fat than you need can lead to
high blood pressure, heart disease, obesity, and
diabetes.
Proteins

Proteins supply raw materials from growth and
repair of structures such a skin and muscle.

Proteins are also involved in regulatory and
transport functions

Examples include insulin, a hormone that
controls blood sugar levels and hemoglobin
which helps the blood transport oxygen
Vitamins

Vitamins are organic molecules that help
regulate body processes often working with
enzymes

Vitamins obtained from food we eat
Minerals

Minerals are inorganic nutrients that the body
needs, usually small amounts

Examples are calcium, iron, and magnesium
Nutrition and a Balanced Diet

The basic idea behind a balanced diet is to eat
a variety foods each day and limit your intake of
fatty, sugary foods