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Human Anatomy and Physiology
Test review for Disease, Atoms, Macromolecules
Test MONDAY, OCTOBER 15th worth 100 points
1. A water molecule is polar because there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the
oxygen and the __________________atoms. Label the diagram below which circle
represents a hydrogen atom and which circle is an oxygen atom and show correct charges.
2. Draw an example of lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. Using colored pencils draw the
following: Create a key or legend explaining what colors represent which items. Don’t use
red color as you will need that for question four.
Channel protein
hydrophobic lipid tail
outside of cell
phospholipids bilayer
hydrophilic phosphate head
inside of cell
3. Explain why the lipid bilayer is organized as drawn above in number two. WHY? Relate to
Question one.
4. With a red colored pencil show simple diffusion of water through the cell membrane from
outside to inside the cell. You must show some kind of concentration gradient for water to
diffuse into the cell. Add this to your key or legend.
5. Name the three types of transport in/out of the cell and explain whether active or
Type of transport
Active or Passive
6. Label pictures below representing a cell in hypotonic, hypertonic, or isotonic solution.
You must correctly demonstrate amount of solute for each solution as well as show direction
of water flow, i.e., either into or out of cell.
A. ___________
B. ______________
C. _____________
7. Which diagram above correctly represents a Puget Sound oyster in freshwater?
What happens to the oyster? Explain.
8. Which diagram above correctly represents our human body cells at homeostasis?
Explain why.
9. Which diagram above correctly represents what happens when you sprinkle salt on a snail?
Explain why.
Egg Lab Data
Initial mass of egg (g)
Beaker 1
H 20
77.6 g
Beaker 2
80.2 g
Beaker 3
69.8 g
Mass after (g)
88.2 g
60.3 g
Difference in mass (+ or -)
+10.6 g
+1.1 g
-9.5 g
10. Using the egg lab data above explain why the eggs lost and/or gained mass using the
words diffusion, osmosis, hypotonic, hypertonic, isotonic, solutes and permeable membrane.
11. Draw the resting membrane potential in the cell below. Include and label the following:
 High concentration of K+
 High concentration of Na+
 Low concentration of K+
 Low concentration of Na+
 K+ leak
 Na+ leak
 Na+/K+ pump - # of ions and direction each is moving
 Anions
12. The overall charge of the inside of the cell compared to the outside is ____.
13. If a nerve impulse on the cell opens ion channels, which direction would Na+ move?
14. Which direction would K+ move?
15. Complete the paragraph below:
All living cells have an electrical charge difference called the resting membrane
__________________ across the plasma membrane. Like the two poles of a battery, the
inside of the membrane is _________ charged and the outside is _________ charged. This
difference stems from the unequal distribution of ______ on the two sides of the
membrane, maintained by the __________________________________. The membrane
potential is essential to the function of nerve and _________________ cells as we will see
in later units.
16. Label the graph below from the following word bank:
Resting membrane potential
Action potential
17. The name of a sugar usually ends in _______.
18. Distinguish between DNA and RNA.
19. No other element can form the amount and variety of molecules that carbon can form.
What characteristics does carbon have that explain this characteristic?
20. Name the four macromolecules, subunits, example, uses and general diagram.
21. Fats contain the chemical elements _____________________________.
22. Fats contain ______Cal/gram while carbohydrates and proteins contain _______
23. How many amino acids are there? _________ What is the R group?
24. What are the four basic structures of a protein?
On the lines provided, identify each statement as describing carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic
acids or proteins.
25. ___________________ the main source of energy for living things.
26. ___________________ help carry out chemical reactions.
27. ___________________ important parts of biological membranes.
28. ___________________ contain hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon.
29. ___________________ transport substances in and out of cells.
30. ___________________ composed of amino acids
31. ___________________ sugar and starches
32. ___________________ store and transmit hereditary information.
33. ___________________ Made of fatty acid tails and glycerol backbone.
34. Glucose and fructose are carbohydrates called:
a. monosaccharides
b. nucleic acids
c. polysaccharides
d. disaccharides
35. The two basic kinds of nucleic acids are ____________ and ____________.
36. _________________________ are polymers of amino acids.
37. A fatty acid with the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible is a
You have already answered these on Edmodo and no need to do it again. Just be ready, if on
test to answer something similar to following.
34. Explain using the terms albumin, osmosis, tissues, protein and Kwashiorkor why the
children in this picture have distended bellies.
35. Characterize the mitochondria organelle from any prior knowledge as well as mention to
the Greg LeMond article and disease.