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The Crusades
High Ho, High Ho,
Its off to War we Go
The High Middle Ages
It's 106 miles to Chicago, we've got a full tank of
gas, half a pack of cigarettes, it's dark, and we're
wearing sunglasses.
We're on a mission from God.
The High Middle Ages
Blues Brothers
The Crusades
Who came up with this
bright idea
– The Pope
 The Pope’s were able to
request that kings and
emperors fight in the
 Failure to fight in the
Crusades might lead the
Pope to question your
loyalty to God and further
lead to excommunication
 So kings and emperors
sent armies and money to
support the Crusades
The Crusades
Why are we going to the Holy Land?
– To take back the Holy Land from the non Christians
– To convert the non believers (Muslims)
– To crush heretics
 Not all Crusades were fought in the Holy Land. Southern
France was the site of a Crusade
 In Frankfurt Germany Crusaders on the way to the Holy
Land killed 10,000 Jews just because they were not
The Crusades
– At about the same time the Crusades were starting
people began to question the role and doctrine of
the Catholic Church
– Many heretics wanted to return to a simpler way of
practicing Christianity
– They rejected the wealth of the church
The Crusades
– With the opening of universities in Europe people
began to think more freely
– People began to study law, philosophy, medicine,
– This new thought or scholasticism came into direct
conflict with the church
The Crusades
The Church response
– To keep control of the masses the church set out
strict guidelines or doctrines of practice
– If these doctrines were not followed then
punishment ranged from excommunication to
torture and execution
– At this time the church is often referred to as the
Church Militant
– The 4th Crusade was directed at those deemed
heretics by the church, Jews, Muslims, and heretics
The Crusades
What motivated the Crusaders
– Genuine religious fervor from both Christian and Muslims
(Our religions is better then yours)
– Geopolitical conflict between Europe and the Middle East
(Hey, your stealing our money, our trade and our land)
– Europe wants in on the trade routes to China and the near
– Greed-European nobles want to make a name for themselves
and get rich-spoils of war
– Racial and religious prejudice “I hate you” concept
The Crusades
The term Crusade best
fits the wars fought
between the Muslims and
the Christians between
1095 and 1291
The Crusades
The First Crusade (10961099)
– Why
 1095 the Byzantine Empire
asked Christian Europe for
military assistance against a
wave of attacks by Seljuk
Turks (Muslims)
 The Byzantine Empire had
been fighting them off for
about 20 years
 The Seljuk Turks had also
taken the Holy Land and
Jerusalem prior to the plea
for help
The Crusades
The Byzantine Emperor in a effort to gain assistance from
the western Christians exaggerated the rumors of what the
Turks were doing to Christians in the Holy Land
The whole killing innocent men women and children
Destroying sacred relics
Pope Urban II calls the Council of Clermont
The Pope calls on all European nobles to
1. Go to the Holy Land
2. Recapture Jerusalem
3. Take back the Holy Land
The Crusades
Off we go
– In 1096 a massive Christian army
heads off to the Holy Land by the
way of Constantinople
– Along the way the crusaders
destroy just about anything in their
way (parts of Europe,
Constantinople, the Holy Land)
– By 1099 the Crusaders reached
Jerusalem and placed it under siege
– In a couple of weeks they took the
city, butchered every Muslim, Jew
and even some Christians in the
– Jerusalem was now in the hands of
the Christians
The Crusades
What happened afterwards
– The Crusaders established
what was called the Latin
– These kingdoms served as the
military and political
strongholds for the Christians
in the Middle East
– The allowed knights and
nobles to
 Own land
 Become involved in trade
and become rich
The Crusades
The Latin Kingdoms
– The Crusaders were able to hold on to these
Kingdoms for about 200 years however at a cost
– The Crusaders would have to fight a series of
Crusades against the Turks, Arabs and other
Muslims who wanted to drive the Christians out
– When the Muslims were successful in taking back
land from the Crusaders then the Crusaders would
start another Crusade
The Crusades
The Second Crusade
– One of the Latin
Kingdoms falls to the
The Crusades
The Third Crusade (11891192)
– Saladin the military leader of
the Muslims captures Jerusalem
in 1187
Saladin is probably the
greatest military leader the
Muslims have ever known
Richard the Lion-Heart of
England, Philip II Augustus
of France and Frederick I
Barbarossa of the Holy
Roman Empire join together
to fight Saladin
The Crusades
The Third Crusade
– Richard does some nasty things
while fighting the Muslims
 Killing every Muslim man,
woman, and child in Acre
– Both Richard and Saladin face
off in a series of battles
– Neither can gain the advantage
on the other
– The Crusade ends in a
– Muslims keep Jerusalem but
Christians were free to visit the
The Crusades
Later Crusades
– From 1200 to about 1291 a series of very unsuccessful
Crusades are launched against the Muslims and even
– The 4th Crusade (1202-1204)
 This Crusade targeted the Christian city of Constantinople instead of
the Muslims
 (Crusaders were now just looking for land and wealth and saw a way
to obtain it in Constantinople)
– The ideals of Chivalry were dying out and knights and nobles
were killing whom ever and taking whatever they wanted
The Crusades
Later Crusades
– In the 1200’s there was Children’s Crusade were young boys and girls
went off to fight the Muslims
– Guess just how this ended up? Lots of children captured and enslaved
– Crusaders attacked Egypt and North Africa with little success
The Turks
– During this same time the Turks were able to drive the Christians out of
the Latin Kingdoms
– Most of the early crusaders who had established the kingdoms had died
or went home
– In 1291 the last outpost for the Christians at Acre fell
– Christian presence in the Middle east was abandoned
– The Crusades were over
The Crusades
Effects of the Crusades
– Long term effect that still last today
 Muslims and Christians hate each other
 It caused a greater division between both religions that is still played
out in the word today
– Effect on Europeans
 Greater understanding of the world and the lands to the east
– Out of this will come the need to further explore, open trade
routes and develop kingdoms in other parts of the world
– Europeans were becoming greedy and wanted the wealth of
the world
The Crusades
Effects of the Crusades
– Increase in knowledge
 Europeans and Muslims were able to exchange new
– The Muslims learned masonry and fortress building from the
 Europeans learned about
– Medicine, sailing technology, literature
– The Crusades ended the Middle Ages and ushered in
the Renaissance
The Crusades
Effects of the Crusades
– The Crusades were not only a religious endeavor but
also a political and social movement
– The early crusades were more religious
– The later crusades were more based on greed
– While the crusades were based on a conflict of
religions it became a contest of who was superior
The Crusades
Effects of the Crusades
– The Crusades were violent and bloody,
 Death, rape, pillage, slavery
 Chivalry was non existent on both sides
– The religious devout were willing to die for their
The Crusades
Effects of the Crusades
– Brought Europe into the sphere of Eastern
– Interaction of trade, new ideas, and rediscovery of
the ancient past which had been preserved by the
Byzantine and Muslim Empires
The Crusades
Effects of the Crusades
– The most important impact or effect of the
Crusades is that conquest and expansion might fail it
still results in cultural interaction or cultures that
might not have otherwise interacted
– This would cause Europe to leave the Middle Ages
and enter the Renaissance and the Age of