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Facilitated Diffusion vs.
Active Transport
Facilitated Diffusion
• Particles always move
with (down) a
concentration gradient.
• Uses transport/channel
• Passive transport.
• Usually for specific
molecules such as
• Facilitated diffusion stops
at equilibrium.
Active transport
• Active Transport: requires energy in the
form of ATP.
– Capable of moving solute particles against the
conc. gradient (from low conc. to high conc.)
– Uses transport/carrier proteins (protein
pumps) embedded in the plasma membrane.
– Carrier proteins are specific for the molecules
that they allow through. The carrier protein
changes shape which requires energy (ATP).
Active Transport against the
concentration gradient
Active Transport
• Endocytosis: a process of taking material
into the cell by means of infoldings, or
pockets, of the cell membrane (usually
putting them into a vacuole).
– Phagocytosis -“Cell eating”
• Nonspecific molecules
• Intake of solids
– Pinocytosis –”Cell Drinking”
• Nonspecific molecules
• Intake of small droplets of liquid
Active Transport
• Exocytosis (reverse endocytosis): a
process in which the membrane of the
vacuole surrounding the material fuses
with the cell membrane, forcing the
contents out of the cell.