Chapter 13 The Renaissance and the Reformation Section 1 The Renaissance in Italy I. What was the Renaissance? A. B. C. A period of change and creativity (political, social, economic, cultural) Huge urban growth = trade was more important Renaissance thinkers began to explore human experiences 1. People had many different talents. D. New levels of curiosity emerged 1. Began exploring new worlds and ideas, as well as new forms of art and literature. I. What was the Renaissance? E. Humanism- Used classic Greek and Roman culture to increase the understanding of their own times. 1. Education should stimulate creativity 2. Petrarch- Brought classic Greek and Roman writings to Western Europe. (Cicero, Homer, Virgil) Review Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. What does the word “Renaissance” mean? What area experienced a huge growth during this time? What was the main theme of Renaissance which focused on Greek and Roman culture and learning. What man was responsible for bringing Greek and Roman learning to W. Europe? II. Italy: Cradle of the Renaissance A. Italy was the center of the Roman Empire and a reawakening. 1. Studied the historical architecture and remains. 2. Rome served as a center for religious themes. B. C. Money from trade fueled the Renaissance Italy was broken up into city states which were controlled by wealthy merchant families. 1. Medici family became the most power family in Italy 2. They were great patrons of the arts (led to growth and transformation in Florence) III. Renaissance Art Flowers A. Art and architecture were the focal points of the Renaissance. 1. Art Religious themes against Roman backgrounds 2. Artists began using perspective (3-D), shadows, and studied the human body to make more realistic images. 3. Architecture reflected Greek and Roman styles III. Renaissance Art Flowers B. Leonardo Da Vinci- multitalented genius 1. Mona Lisa- considered the greatest painting of all time 2. The Last Supper- A masterpiece of perspective 3. He was the ultimate Renaissance man. C. Michelangelo- sculptor, engineer, architect, poet. 1. Best work- Sistine Chapel in Rome (he was left partially handicapped. 2. Built St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome. D. Rafael School of Athens IV. Writing For a New Society A. Many books were written on philosophy and history. 1. Guide books were also written The Book of the Courtier by Baldassare Castiglione. 2. The guidelines for members of the court (men and women) B. Machiavelli The Prince (Guide to gaining power) 1. “The end justifies the means” do whatever you have to in order to win. Vocab Humanism- Studying Greek and Roman culture to increase understanding of the time. Humanities- study for subjects such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry and history, that were taught in ancient Greece and Rome. Petrarch- assembled a library of Greek and Roman manuscripts. Florence- The birthplace of the Italian Renaissance. Patron- A financial supporter of the arts. Vocab Perspective- Art technique used to give art a more realistic, 3-D effect. Leonardo- multi-talented genius who painted the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper Michelangelo- multi-talented artist who painted the Sistine Chapel and sculpted David. Rafael- painted The School of Athens Baldassare Castiglione- wrote The Book of the Courtier Niccolo Machiavelli- wrote The Prince. Section 2 The Renaissance in the North I. The Printing Revolution A. Johann Gutenberg created the 1st complete edition of the Bible with movable print in 1455. 1. Between 1455 & 1500, 15-20 million books were printed. B. Printed books were cheaper and easier to produce. 1. What did this lead to? II. Northern Renaissance Artists A. The city of Flanders began the Renaissance in the North. 1. It was a prosperous center of trade. B. Albrecht Dürer (Leonardo of the North) 1. 1494 He traveled to Italy to study the Renaissance masters. 2. He brought back the Italian Renaissance to the north . 3. He is famous for creating the art of engraving (making prints out of metal with acid) 4. Most of his paintings refer to religious upheaval III. Northern Humanists & Writers A. Humanists stressed education and classical learning. 1. They wanted to bring religious and moral reform. 2. Began writing in vernacular. B. Erasmus He was a Dutch priest. 1. Wrote an edition of the Bible in Greek. 2. He wanted the Bible written in vernacular. 3. Wanted people to be open minded and to reform corruption in the church. III. Northern Humanists & Writers C. Sir Thomas More Utopia 1. Ideal society where everyone lived in peace and everyone is educated. 2. Justice to end crime not eliminate the criminal. D. Rabelais Gargantua and Pantagruel 1. Used characters to show opinions and faults within the church. III. Northern Humanists & Writers E. Shakespeare Expressed universal themes in everyday, realistic settings. 1. His characters spoke in the language of the common people. 2. He created over 1,700 words. Section 2 Review Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What Renaissance thinker was responsible for creating the printing press? What impact did the printing press have on Renaissance society? In what city did the Northern Renaissance start? What theme did Abrecht Dürer’s art often portray? What was the Utopia described by Sir Thomas More? Shakespeare, Rabelais, and Cervantes all wrote using in what style? What theme did Shakespeare’s work explore? Section 2 Review Answers 1. What Renaissance thinker was responsible for creating the printing press? 1. 2. What impact did the printing press have on Renaissance society? 1. 3. -Johann Gutenberg -Books were produced easier and cheaper, which led to increased literacy rates. In what city did the Northern Renaissance start? 1. -Flanders Section 2 Review Answers 4. What theme did Abrecht Dürer’s art often portray? 1. 5. -Religious upheaval What was the Utopia described by Sir Thomas More? 1. -A Utopia was an ideal society where everyone lived in peace and were educated. Focus was put on stopping crime rather than the criminal. 6. Shakespeare, Rabelais, and Cervantes all wrote using in what style? 1. -They wrote in vernacular, or the language of the common people. Section 2 Review Answers 7. What theme did Shakespeare’s work explore? 1. -His work explored everyday, realistic themes.