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Transcript
By
Hassan Mohamed
Hassan Ismiel
Khalid Hosni
Khalid Salama
Hamada Mahmoud
2
1.What is an earthquake ?
2.When do Earthquakes occur ?
3.Types of Shockwaves .
4.Methods to Reduce the Impacts of Earthquakes .
5.Conclusion .
3
The earthquake is the sudden release of some stored
energies in the earth’s crust .
4
5
The shockwaves are called seismic waves. Some types of
seismic waves are called body waves. The other waves
are called surface waves. There are two different types
of surface waves: Rayleigh waves and Love waves .
6
Problem :
The collapse of infrastructure causes much
economical damage and even deaths!
7
4.1.Planning the location of infrastructure:
 Build new infrastructure away from earthquake prone areas to
reduce economical damage and lower number of deaths caused
by earthquakes .
 Authorities can implement guidelines on the location of new
infrastructure and set limits on the heights of buildings .
8
Buildings are not too tall in earthquakeprone Japan!
9
4.2.Designing Earthquake-Resistant Infrastructure:
 New infrastructure can be specially designed to withstand strong
tremors by making use of the latest technology .
4.3. Strengthening Existing Infrastructure:
 New infrastructure can be specially designed to withstand strong
tremors and reduce damage from earthquakes by making use of
technology .
10
Cross-bracing
Reinforce walls
using two steel
beams .
Shock absorbers
(base isolators)
absorb tremors of
earthquakes
Shear walls
(concrete walls
with steel bars in
them) to reduce
rocking
movements .
11
Existing infrastructure can be
reinforced by wrapping steel
frames around the pillars of
buildings and bridges, or by
placing steel rods in existing
structures .
12
4.4. Education on Emergency Procedure:
•Earthquake drills are conducted regularly in many earthquake-prone
countries to educate and familiarize people on what to do in the event of
an earthquake .
•Governments of earthquake-prone countries also use posters and signs to
warn people about areas that are prone to the effects of earthquakes e.g.
coastal areas where tsunamis can occur .
13
 The society needs to be educated on the advantages of the
earthquake resistant construction. There is a need to
disseminate earthquake engineering information in local
languages in the manner that sustains the interests of
common man. This will facilitate the better appreciation of
earthquake safety.
THUS IT IS ALWAYS SAID THAT,
“PRECAUTION IS BETTER THAN CURE”.