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HOTSPOTS Areas of unusually high volcanic activity Unusually hot magma rises in the mantle & breaks through the crust, forming a volcano The Hawaiian Islands were formed by a hot spot As the Pacific Plate moves northwest, the hot spot stays in place, making a chain of volcanoes EARTHQUAKES Earthquakes occur whenever there is movement of Earth’s Tectonic Plates. They occur along all types of plate boundaries and along faults within the plates Structure of an Earthquake The FOCUS is the point underground where the earthquake originated The EPICENTER is the point on the surface directly above the focus. Types of Seismic Waves P: “Primary” or “Push-Pull” waves, first to arrive (fastest waves), causes ground compression and expansion S: “Secondary” or “Shear” waves, travel half the speed of P waves, moves ground side-to-side and up-and-down SURFACE WAVES; Arrive last, travel the slowest, but cause the most ground movement and damage Locating the Epicenter of an Earthquake The device that detects seismic activity is called a SEISMIGRAPH The paper that records the seismic activity is a SEISMIGRAM In order to locate the Epicenter, you must have data from 3 seismic stations. Measuring Earthquakes Earthquake intensity is measured using the RICHTER Scale Each number on the scale releases about 31 times* more energy than the previous number * So, an 8.0 earthquake releases 29,791 times more energy than a 5.0 Effects of an Earthquake Collapsed buildings & bridges FIRES (from broken gas lines) LANDSLIDES & LIQUEFACTION TSUNAMIS Studying Earth’s Interior We know the structure of Earth’s interior from studying the P & S WAVES of earthquakes P-WAVES can travel through any material, but they bend when moving through liquid. This bending creates “SHAWDOW ZONE” S-WAVES can only travel through solids, so they create a much larger “shadow zone” on the other side of the Earth.