Download HOTSPOTS

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

History of geology wikipedia, lookup

Geology wikipedia, lookup

Nature wikipedia, lookup

Seismic inversion wikipedia, lookup

Ionospheric dynamo region wikipedia, lookup

Rogue wave wikipedia, lookup

Physical oceanography wikipedia, lookup

Wind wave wikipedia, lookup

Seismic communication wikipedia, lookup

Magnetotellurics wikipedia, lookup

Large igneous province wikipedia, lookup

Geophysics wikipedia, lookup

Earthscope wikipedia, lookup

Seismometer wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
HOTSPOTS
 Areas of unusually high volcanic activity
 Unusually hot magma rises in the mantle & breaks
through the crust, forming a volcano
 The Hawaiian Islands were formed by a hot spot
 As the Pacific Plate moves northwest, the hot spot
stays in place, making a chain of volcanoes
EARTHQUAKES
 Earthquakes occur whenever there is movement of Earth’s Tectonic Plates.
 They occur along all types of plate boundaries and along faults within the plates
Structure of an Earthquake
 The FOCUS is the point underground where the earthquake
originated
 The EPICENTER is the point on the surface directly above the
focus.
Types of Seismic Waves
 P: “Primary” or “Push-Pull” waves, first to arrive (fastest waves), causes ground
compression and expansion
 S: “Secondary” or “Shear” waves, travel half the speed of P waves, moves
ground side-to-side and up-and-down
 SURFACE WAVES; Arrive last, travel the slowest, but cause the most ground
movement and damage
Locating the Epicenter of an Earthquake
 The device that detects seismic activity is called a SEISMIGRAPH
 The paper that records the seismic activity is a SEISMIGRAM
 In order to locate the Epicenter, you must have data from 3
seismic stations.
Measuring Earthquakes
 Earthquake intensity is measured using the RICHTER Scale
 Each number on the scale releases about 31 times*
more energy than the previous number
* So, an 8.0 earthquake releases 29,791 times more energy than a 5.0
Effects of an Earthquake

Collapsed buildings & bridges

FIRES (from broken gas lines)

LANDSLIDES & LIQUEFACTION

TSUNAMIS
Studying Earth’s Interior
 We know the structure of Earth’s interior from studying the P & S WAVES of earthquakes
 P-WAVES can travel through any material, but they bend when moving through liquid. This
bending creates “SHAWDOW ZONE”
 S-WAVES can only travel through solids, so they create a much larger “shadow zone” on the
other side of the Earth.