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E. Lee F2013
Modifiedy by DYH
Yersinia pestis
Yersinia; Gammaproteobacteria
Gram-negative bacillus
non-spore forming, non motile, facultative anaerobe
Infects humans in three forms: pneumonic (infection of the lungs), septicemic
(infection in the bloodstream), and bubonic (infection in the lymphnodes)
• Can cause epidemics (ex: the Black Plague and Justinianic
• Classified as category A pathogen
• Can also effect other mammals
• Fatal if not treated within 2-6 days
• Common reservoir: rodents
• Transmission by fleas (infector)
E. Lee F2013
Modifiedy by DYH
Yersinia pestis virulence
• yadBC genes encode for adhesins and invasins
• Allows Y. pestis to adhere and invade epithelial cells of
• Virulence factors: inhibits immune response of host
• Plasminogen activator degrades blood clots
• Fraction 1 (F1) capsular and LcrV antigens
• Type III secretion system (T3SS) secretes Yersinia
Outer Proteins (Yops) into macrophages and other
immune cells
• Yop B and Yop D form pores in the host cell membrane
and Yop O, H, M, T, J, and E are injected into cytoplasm of
host via T3SS
• YopJ hinders the host cell kinase activity to inhibit
apoptosis of macrophages
• YopO also called Yersinia protein kinase A (YpkA) induces
macrophage apoptosis too
• Bacteria continues to multiply within these protective
• Cure: F1/V antigen based vaccine