... damages. Our outer surface, the skin, is protected by layers of dead keratinized cells, whereas
the epithelial surfaces within the body lining the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract as well as the
reproductive and urinary tracts are composed of a single cell layer. The cells in the epithelium
are tig ...
... free-living amoebae and V. cholerae occur in the
same ecological niche (Thom et al., 1992), it is
plausible that the two organisms have coevolved
based on frequent encounters. We therefore aimed at
better understanding the interaction between A.
castellanii and V. cholerae at the single-cell level.
... behavior is regulated by a large number of binding
proteins, which are often the effectors of intracellular
and extracellular signaling pathways. It is therefore
not surprising that the actin cytoskeleton is one of the
main targets of bacterial protein toxins, and thus of
major importance for the ho ...
... Nectar contains water, sugars and amino acids to attract
pollinators and defenders and is protected from nectar
robbers and microorganisms by secondary compounds
and antimicrobial proteins. Floral and extrafloral nectar
secretion can be induced by jasmonic acid, it is often
adjusted to consumer iden ...
... defects in glucagon secretion result in hyperglucagonemia and exacerbate hyperglycemia (6–8). Reducing the
effects of glucagon excess is a valuable approach to prevent and ameliorate diabetic symptoms (9–11). Despite
the critical role that dysfunctional glucagon secretion
plays in the pathophysiolog ...
... at 4 °C. The PAK strain of P. aeruginosa was streaked out on a
1.5% LB agar plate in a grid-like fashion and grown overnight at
37 °C. The cells were harvested by gentle scraping with a sterile
coverslip and resuspended in 1⫻ PBS containing 100 mg/liter
benzamidine and 10 ng/ml DNase and RNase. The ...
... In other secretion systems, soluble proteins are secreted into
the medium and so are exposed to the potentially harsh
conditions of the extracellular environment. OMVs may be a
means by which soluble proteins and nucleic acids can be
encapsulated in a bilayer membrane and released in a
protective st ...
... The gram negative bacteria Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of the
Legionnaire’s disease, is characterized by a facultative intracellular replication inside
macrophages, monocytes or epithelial cells (Horwitz, 1983). In the environment,
L. pneumophila presents a ubiquitous aquatic reparti ...
... O157:H7 and its role in bacterial predation
Gram negative bacteria secrete vesicles that are formed when a portion of the outer membrane
“blebs off” . The lumen of these outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) contains a small portion
of the periplasm. However, it appears that the quantity of mos ...
... Tetrahymena thermophila has been utilized in isolating such unicellular organisms from pellets that also
contain SWCNTs and bacteria, by pelleting the sample by centrifugation and then allowing ciliates
to swim out of the pellet into the supernatant wherein they are collected . Although elegant, ...
... described previously by Miller (45) except that cells were permeabilized with
Koch’s lysis solution (51). For determinations of ␤-galactosidase levels in bacteria at different stages of growth, bacteria cultured overnight were diluted 1:50
into medium with or without antibiotics as described in the ...
... involved in protein-protein or protein-carbohydrate interaction . Our previous studies
provided a crystal structure model of the PKD1 domain from V. cholerae PrtV (residues 755–
838) and revealed a Ca++-binding site which could control domain linker flexibility, presumably playing an important s ...
... (60). In plants, a causal link has yet to be established between the activation of MAPK signaling and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton;
however, a number of studies have independently investigated functional and regulatory
processes that potentially link MAPK signaling
and cortical actin dyn ...
... Nematodes began feeding on microbes long before the emergence of vertebrates. Microbial mechanisms to
fend off nematodes - and perhaps even turn the animals into the microbe's food - must be of equally ancient origin. It
is likely, then, that many of the microbial processes at work in human infectio ...
... These differences as well as the rRNA tree have convinced most scientists that the root of the tree of life
must be between the prokaryotic superkingdoms. The
proposal that archaea were a different kingdom was originally considered ridiculous because no one could imagine two distinct groups of proka ...
... (362 vs. 308 amino acids), this higher hydrophobicity would
be in keeping with the lipid composition and overall OM
properties (see Hydrophobicity).
Group 3 Two proteins of 25 and 31 kDa with only 34% of
identity are included in group 3  and they are coded for by
the omp25 and omp31 genes . B ...
... In addition to its use in clinical detection, the extracellular capsules of C. neoformans are also crucial
for success of the pathogen . Thus, understanding capsular synthesis may help identify fungal targets
for new therapies which do not require uptake of inhibitory materials into the interior ...
... due to their implications not only in bacterial colonization of abiotic surfaces with an economic value, but
also in almost all pathogenic infections, making them recalcitrant due to their multidrug resistance. Initially, the
proposed function for cellulose in bacteria was not
linked to biofilm form ...
... changes underlying accommodation of filamentous pathogen haustoria are yet poorly understood. In addition, most
of the modern research on haustorial cell biology has
focused so far on fungi, and plant pathogenic oomycetes
have been neglected despite their diversity and economic
importance (Thines an ...
... outside of the peptidoglycan layer. As noted by Trüper and
Schleifer (244) “A clear separation of the Gram-positive and
Gram-negative bacteria can be obtained by the differences in
the ultrastructure and chemical composition of the cell wall”.
In the present work, I have used the term “gram negativ ...
... negative bacteria unstained.
The length of the decolorization stage is critical as prolonged decolorizing will remove
the primary stain from the Gram‐positive cells and this will lead to false negatives during
characterization of the microorganisms.
Finally, in order to visualize the unstained ...
Type three secretion system (often written Type III secretion system and abbreviated TTSS or T3SS, also called Injectisome or Injectosome) is a protein appendage found in several Gram-negative bacteria.In pathogenic bacteria, the needle-like structure is used as a sensory probe to detect the presence of eukaryotic organisms and secrete proteins that help the bacteria infect them. The secreted effector proteins are secreted directly from the bacterial cell into the eukaryotic (host) cell, where they exert a number of effects that help the pathogen to survive and to escape an immune response.