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Guided Notes: Simple Genetics Punnett Squares In order to determine the ___________ a person might inherit, we use a simple diagram called a ____________________________ o Give us _________________ of an offspring having particular traits Pieces of the Punnett Square Allele: A _____________ form of a ______________ o Humans inherit __________ allele from each parent that determines a ___________ o Ex. Curly/straight hair, tall/short, etc. Dominant Allele: A ____________allele shows their effect even if there is only ______ copy of the allele (think strong!) o Dominant alleles are denoted by a capital letter (Ex. _________) Recessive Allele: A ___________allele will only show up if no dominant alleles are in place. (think weak!) o Recessive alleles are denoted by a lower case letter (Ex. ________) Dominant and recessive alleles pair together to determine a ___________! (Ex. ___________) Homozygous: If both letters are ____________ (both dominant (capital) or both recessive (lowercase)), the alleles are ____________________ o “Homo” means “_________” o Ex. Let’s say “A” represents the allele for a widow’s peak, and “a” represents the allele for a straight hairline A person with “AA” would be called homozygous __________________ A person with “Aa” would be called homozygous __________________ Heterozygous: If both letters are ______________ (one dominant (capital) and one recessive (lowercase)), the alleles are ______________________ o “Hetero” means “__________________” o Ex. A person with “Aa” would be heterozygous Would they have a widow’s peak or a straight hairline? Genotype: The ________________, _______________ information of an organism o Example: A person’s genotype is Aa (heterozygous); they can pass on either a dominant allele or a recessive one Phenotype: The _____________,_______________ appearance of an organism o Example: A person has a widow’s peak Dominant or Recessive? Heterozygous or Homozygous Phenotype or Genotype? A _______________ AA ____________________ She’s homozygous recessive ________ b _______________ Bb ____________________ She has blue eyes _________________ B _______________ cc _____________________ Building a Punnett Square Consider the following alleles for color of a pea plant: AA (Yellow-homozygous dominant) Aa (Yellow-heterozygous) aa (Green-homozygous recessive) Problem: Let’s say you had two pea plants, both heterozygous yellow (Aa), and you wanted to know what color plants would be produced. How would you find out? ____________________ 1. Setting up the square a. What we know: ____________________ b. So, cross _________________ will be carried out in the Punnett Square 2. Carrying out the square a. Father’s letters cross to the __________ b. Mother’s letters cross ____________ c. Notice each combination has one allele from dad and one from mom 3. Interpreting the final square a. Once the square is finished, determine the _____________ and ____________ ratios of the possible offspring i. Genotype: ii. Phenotype: Tt x tt What is the probability of producing offspring that have short whiskers from a cross of two long whiskered seals, one homozygous dominant and one heterozygous? Genotype: Genotype: Phenotype: Phenotype: A Few Notes on Genetics: Some traits are controlled by _______________________ pair of genes, and so present a wide range of phenotypes (ex. Skin, hair, eye color) All traits depend on both _______________ and _____________ factors o Heredity determines your traits, but the environment may play a role in how they act Guided Notes: Genetic Diseases Dominant or Recessive? If a disease is ___________________, both parents have to pass on a mutated allele to the offspring o Those who are heterozygous (Aa) are ____________, meaning they have the mutated allele and can pass it on, but are ____________ themselves If a disease is ___________________, only one parent has to pass on the mutated allele for offspring to have it o Can a person with a dominant disease be a carrier? Genetic Diseases Disease Cystic Fibrosis Dominant or Recessive? Characteristics Causes __________ buildup in lungs and digestive system Those affected have _______________ and ____________________________ Common in those with _____________ ancestry Life expectancy up to _____ years thanks to ___________________ Sickle Cell Anemia Affects a person’s _________________ cells The “sickle” or bent shape causes the cells to get stuck in ________________ Common in those with _____________ ancestry Carriers associated with ____________ resistance PKU Stands for _______________________ Missing the ____________to break down phenylalanine, an amino acid Results in __________ deterioration People affected must keep low ____________ diet + inject enzyme Huntington’s Affects the _____________ of the body Disease Affected will have _________________ decline Often does not show signs until a person reaches mid _________ A woman who is a carrier for Cystic Fibrosis marries a man who is also a carrier. What is the probability that they will have a child with Cystic Fibrosis? A woman is concerned that she may develop Huntington’s Disease because her father has it. What is the probability that she has Huntington’s?