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Unit 5: Planet Earth Topic 5-7 Study Guide Topic 5: Earthquakes - Seismologists study earthquakes - Seismographs are machines attached to the bedrock that measure earthquake waves (seismic waves) - A seismogram is the printed report of the waves. - Richter Scale: a scale from 1-10 that measures the magnitude of an earthquake - Aftershocks are mini earthquakes that occur after an earthquake - Primary Waves (P Waves): fastest wave, can travel through solids, liquids, and gases, very little damage (rattling dishes) - Secondary Waves (S Waves): slower than P Waves, can ONLY travel through solids - Surface Waves: strongest (most damage), slowest, rolling wave - The farther apart P and S Waves are, the farther away the earthquake is (like counting between thunder and lightning) - Epicenter is where the earthquake begins on the surface, the focus is the place deep in the crust where it begins. - Normal Fault (tension) - Reverse Fault (compression) - Strike-Slip/Transform Faults (Shear) - Tsunamis (mean harbour wave) is caused by an earthquake that occurs in the ocean Topic 6: Volcanoes - Volcanoes release lava, ash, steam through openings called vents. - An inactive volcano is called dormant. An extinct volcano will never erupt again. - The Ring of Fire in the Pacific ocean is a belt of active volcanoes and earthquakes. - There is volcanic activity in our solar system (Io, Olympus Mons) Topic 7: Mountains - Western Cordillera (mountain range) includes mountains in Alaska, and the Canadian and American Rockies. - Mountains form when rock folds or faults (when it is too brittle to bend) - Folding: anticline (top), syncline (bottom) - Faulting: Thrust Faulting (shingles on a roof) - Complex Mountains (formed by folding and faulting) - Young Mountains (jagged, high) - Old Mountains (rounded, low, due to erosion) - Canada has the Canadian Rockies (AB/BC), and the Laurentian Mountains (Quebec). - The Theory of Plate Tectonics is a Unifying Theory because it explains why earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, and mountains occur.