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Transcript
Chapter 1
*Lecture Outline
*See separate FlexArt PowerPoint slides for all
figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint
without notes.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Chapter 1 Outline
•
•
•
•
History of Anatomy
Definition of Anatomy
Structural Organization of the Body
Language of Anatomy
What Is Anatomy?
• Study of structure
– Greek for “to cut up” or “cut open”
– Need to know parts before functions
• Physiology is the study of function
• See Table 1.1 to compare anatomy and
physiology of a structure
Two Sizes of Anatomy
Microscopic (a.k.a. histology)
• Structures too small to be seen with the
unaided eye
Gross
• Structures that can be seen with the
unaided eye
Gross Subdisciplines
•
Comparative anatomy
–
•
Examines similarities and differences in
anatomy of species
Developmental anatomy
–
•
study of structure changes within an
individual from conception through maturity
Embryology
–
study of developmental changes occurring
prior to birth
Gross Subdisciplines
• Regional anatomy
– study of structures within a single region
• e.g., the head and neck or abdomen
• Systemic anatomy
– study of structures involved with a specific activity
• e.g., digestion or reproduction
• Surface anatomy
– study of internal structures as their locations relate to
regions of skin or other surface markings
Structural Organization
of the Human Body
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Atoms
Molecules
Cells
Tissue
Organs
Systems
Organism
Structural Organization
of the Human Body
Figure 1.3
Characteristics of a
“Living” Organism
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Organization (see previous two slides)
Metabolism
Growth and Development
Responsiveness
Adaptation
Regulation
Reproduction
Introduction to Organ Systems
• There are 11* organ systems in the human
body
– Study trick: “Run Mrs. Lidec!”
– (*counting male and female reproductive
systems separately = 12)
• Each with organs that work together to
perform specific functions
Figure 1.4
Figure 1.4
continued
Figure 1.4
continued
Figure 1.4
continued
Language of Anatomy
• Anatomy is a visual science, based on
proper terminology.
– For instance, if you are standing up, your
heart is “above” your stomach…
– but where is the heart relative to the stomach
when you are lying down?
• A standard universal position for
comparing structures is needed.
The Anatomic Position
Characteristics of the anatomic position:
• Standing upright
• Feet parallel and on the floor
• Head level and looking forward
• Arms at side of body
• Palms facing forward and thumbs
pointing away from body
(see next slide for example)
Anatomic Position
Sections and Planes
• Used to visualize internal and 3-D
anatomy of body parts relative to each
other
• A section
– an actual cut or slice through a structure
– or a piece removed by slicing a structure
• Planes
– imaginary flat surfaces passing through the
body or an organ
– there are three standard anatomic planes
Three Anatomic Planes
•
Coronal (frontal) plane
–
•
Transverse (horizontal) plane
–
•
divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior
(back) parts
divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior
(lower) parts
Midsagittal (median) plane
–
–
divides the body into equal left and right halves
other sagittal planes divide the body into
unequal left and right parts
Body Planes
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Coronal
plane
Transverse
plane
Midsagittal
plane
Figure 1.5
© McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Inc./ Eric Wise, photographer
Anatomic Directions
Allow us to describe the relative position of
one body structure in relation to another
• Anterior vs. posterior
• Superior vs. inferior
• Medial vs. lateral
• Proximal vs. distal
(see next 2 slides)
Anatomic Directions
Figure 1.7
Regional Anatomy
The body can be divided into 2 major
regions:
Axial
head, neck, and trunk (the vertical axis of
the body)
Appendicular
upper and lower limbs (appendages)
Body Cavities
•
Posterior cavities
–
–
•
Cranial: formed by skull bones
Vertebral: formed by vertebral column
bones
Ventral cavities
–
–
Thoracic: the superior cavity
Abdominopelvic: the inferior cavity
•
physically separated by the diaphragm
Body Cavities
Figure 1.9
Cavity Membranes
•
Ventral cavities are lined by a thin serous
membrane
–
divided into two continuous parts (layers):
1. Parietal layer: lines the internal surface
of the body wall
2. Visceral layer: covers the external
surface of organs in the cavity
– both layers produce a small amount of fluid
to lubricate the organs, protect against
friction
Cavity Membranes
Figure 1.10
Thoracic Cavity
• The heart is located in a middle compartment
called the mediastinum.
Figure 1.10
Thoracic Cavity
• The serous membrane that surrounds the
heart is called the pericardium.
– As the heart develops, it projects into the
pericardium but doesn’t break it.
Figure 1.10
Thoracic Cavity
•
The pericardium develops 2 continuous
layers:
– Visceral pericardium: on surface of
heart
– Parietal pericardium: surrounding heart
•
•
Between the layers is a space called the
pericardial cavity
Similar development happens with the
lungs (see p. 16)
Abdominopelvic Cavity
•
•
Two continuous cavities with no physical
separation
– Abdominal cavity (superior)
– Pelvic cavity (inferior)
The anatomical boundary between the
two cavities is an imaginary horizontal
line drawn across the superior border of
both hip bones
Membranes of the
Abdominopelvic Cavities
•
The serous membrane = peritoneum
–
Two continuous layers
1. Visceral peritoneum: on outer surface of
organs
2. Parietal peritoneum: lining the internal
walls and not directly in contact with the
organs
Regions of the
Abdominopelvic Cavity
• Being largest cavity, it is divided
– using 2 sagittal and 2 horizontal planes
– into 9 regions (see next slide)
– allowing anatomists and health-care
professionals a more accurate way to
describe organ locations
Nine Region Division
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Right
hypochondriac
region
Epigastric
region
Left
hypochondriac
region
Right
lumbar
region
Umbilical
region
Left
lumbar
region
Hypogastric
region
Left
iliac
region
Right
iliac
region
Figure 1.11
(a) Abdominopelvic regions
Abdominopelvic Quadrants
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
• The abdominopelvic cavity
can also be
divided into 4
quadrants.
Right upper
Left upper
quadrant (RUQ) quadrant (LUQ)
Right lower
Left lower
quadrant (RLQ) quadrant (LLQ)
(b) Abdominopelvic quadrants
Figure 1.11