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Transcript
8/22/2014
DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION
A Darwinian View of Life
AP BIOLOGY Chapter 22
WHO INFLUENCED
DARWIN’S THINKING
Linnaeus (classification)
Hutton (gradual geologic change)
Lamarck (species can change)
Malthus (population limits)
Cuvier (fossils, extinction)
Lyell (modern geology)
Darwin (evolution, nutural selection)
Mendel (inheritance)
American Revolution
1750
French Revolution
Wallace (evolution, natural selection)
U.S. Civil War
1800
1850
1795 Hutton proposes his theory of gradualism.
1900
1798 Malthus publishes “Essay on the Principle of Population.”
1809 Lamarck publishes his theory of evolution.
1830 Lyell publishes Principles of Geology.
1831–1836 Darwin travels around the world on HMS Beagle.
1837 Darwin begins his notebooks on the origin of species.
1844 Darwin writes his essay on the origin of species.
1858 Wallace sends his theory to Darwin.
1859 The Origin of Species is published.
1865 Mendel publishes inheritance papers.
Figure 22.2
Image from: Biology by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006
Image from:
Image from: AP BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reece
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/aristotle.html
Image from: http://www.medusozoa.com/images/linnaeus.jpg
Aristotle- (384-322 B.C.)
• Founder of TAXONOMY-1735
Science of grouping & naming
Species are fixed (unchanging)
BUT recognized similarities
• Sought to discover order in the diversity of
life “for the greater glory of God”
(1707-1778) • Each creature was specialNO evolutionary link
• Devised classification system based on
morphology (form and structure)
Arranged life forms
on a scale of
increasing complexity
Binomial Nomenclature:
Naming system that gives organisms a
two part scientific name- Genus species
Still used today
scala natura“scale of nature”
http://www.kheper.net/topics/greatchainofbeing/index.html
LINNAEUS’S SYSTEM
Nested hierarchy
Taxon = classification unit to which
organisms are assigned
Ex:
Panthera is a taxon at the genus level
Mammalia is a taxon at the class level
Kidspiration by Riedell
Image Sources: see end of show
http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/d/d6/150px-Biological_classification_L_Pengo.svg.png
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Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach
Kings Play Chess On Fat Green Stools
King Phillip Cried Oh For Goodness Sake!
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Carnivora
Family Felidae
Genus Panthera
Species leo
http://www.vetmed.wisc.edu/dms/fapm/personnel/tom_b/2004-lion.jpg
Genus and species assignments
provide 2 part scientific name
Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
Image from: http://www.earlylearning.ubc.ca/images/photo_baby.jpg
Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:
GENUS = group of closely related
species
GENUS = Ursus (Includes many kinds
Ursus
arctos
Ursus
maritimus
of bears)
Ursus
americanis
SPECIES = unique to each kind of bear
http://www.macecanada.com/images/bears/kodiak_bear.gif
http://students.cs.byu.edu/~tole/Virtual%20Zoo/polar-bear.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Black_bear_large.jpg
Modern Taxonomy
has added more Kingdoms
AND more levels (DOMAINS)
Linneaus only used 2 kingdoms
(Plants & Animals)
Domains are larger than Kingdoms and
are based on the differences in
ribosomal RNA
Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:
http://www.creationism.org/books/TaylorInMindsMen/TaylorIMMc03.htm
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/28/Georges_Cuvier.jpg
George Cuvier –
Father of Paleontology
ANTI-EVOLUTONIST
Fossils are
remains of
extinct life forms
“CATASTROPHISM” boundaries represent floods,
droughts, etc. that destroyed
many species living at that time
1795 –James Hutton
“GRADUALISM”
Profound changes can result
from cumulative effect of
slow but continuous
processes
Proposed that the Earth was shaped by
geological forces occurring over very long
periods of time, and is MILLIONS not
THOUSANDS of years old.
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Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:
MODERN GEOLOGY
1833-Charles Lyell
Incorporated Hutton’s ideas into
“UNIFORMITARIANISM”
Geological processes that
shaped Earth are still
operating at same rate.
Darwin read his book on
the Beagle voyage
http://www.biologydaily.com/biology/Sir_Charles_Lyell
http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/docs/usgsnps/animate/A08.gif
http://www.nndb.com/people/250/000024178/malthus.jpg
Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:
Thomas Malthus (1798)
wrote essay on
population growth
Human suffering (disease, famine,
homelessness, and war) are consequences
to human population increasing faster than
food and other resources
http://www.educa.rcanaria.es/fundoro/00.corsi.htm
Ideas that shaped Darwin’s thinking:
Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)
One of first scientists to recognize
that living things changed over time
and that all species were descended
from other species.
1809- Published his ideas about
“Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics”
the year Darwin was born
http://www.geocities.com/arnold_schwarzenegger_pictures/
INHERITANCE OF ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS
The male fiddler crab uses its
front claw to attract mates and
ward off predators.
What’s wrong with Lamarck’s hypothesis?
Lamarck didn’t know about
genes and how traits are
inherited.
“USE or DISUSE” = Use it or lose it
Through repeated use, the front
claw becomes larger.
The fiddler passes on this
acquired characteristic to its
offspring
Acquired traits are not
passed on to offspring
Or are they? . . .
New field of EPIGENETICS is exploring this
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What’s right with Lamarck’s hypothesis?
Lamarck was first to
develop a scientific
hypothesis about
evolution and recognize
that organisms are
adapted to their
environment
http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~he599900/giraffeeating.jpg
Who Was Charles Darwin?
Slide by Kim [email protected] http://www.explorebiology.com/
Who Was Charles Darwin?
In 1831, 22-year old Charles Darwin left England as
naturalist aboard the HMS Beagle for 5 year voyage
around the world.
Darwin spent a month observing life on the Galapagos
Islands
Mission: Chart the South American coastline
Each island has different rainfall
Darwin noticed plants
and animals were different
from those he knew in Europe
Wrote thousands of pages
of observations and
collected vast number of
specimens
http://www.solarnavigator.net/history/explorers_history/HMS_Beagle.jpg
and vegetation and its own unique
assortment of plant and animal
species.
Biology by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006
http://mikebaird.com/ecuador/images/galapagos_off_ecuador_ng_map.jpg
Who Was Charles Darwin?
Although animals on Galapagos
resemble species on the
South American mainland,
many species were found no
where else in the world = ENDEMIC
http://www.darwinadventure.com/pictures/galapagos_giantortoise.jpg
http://www.destination360.com/south-america/ecuador/galapagos-animals.php
http://www.photoseek.com/galapago.html
DARWIN’S
FINCHES
Darwin collected 14 species of finches and
hypothesized that the Galapagos had be
colonized by organisms from the mainland that
had then diversified on the various
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Who Was Charles Darwin?
After Darwin returned to England in 1836, he spent
years examining specimens he brought back from
voyage and filling notebooks with his ideas.
He did not rush to publish his ideas because they
disagreed with the fundamental scientific views of his
day.
In 1858 Alfred Russel Wallace, another
Naturalist working in the West Indies,
wrote an essay describing his work that
summarized the same ideas Darwin had
been thinking about for 25 years!
In 1844 he wrote an essay describing his ideas and
asked his wife to publish it if he died.
http://www.elsie.brandeis.edu/images/journals.gif
Suddenly Darwin had incentive to publish
the results of his work!
http://www.thesecondevolution.com/wallace&darwin.jpg
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
Darwin Presents his Case
In 1859
On the Origin of Species
by Means of Natural Selection
presented evidence
and proposed a
mechanism for evolution
that he called
NATURAL SELECTION
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/world/images/s125.jpg
Isn’t evolution “just a theory”?
In every day usage “theory” often refers to a
hunch or a speculation. When people say, “I
have a theory about what happened,” they are
often drawing a conclusion based on fragmentary
or inconclusive evidence.
The formal scientific definition of “theory” is
quite different from the every day meaning.
It refers to a comprehensive explanation of
some aspect of nature that is supported by a
vast body of evidence.
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evohome.htm
Image from: Biology by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006
Isn’t evolution just a theory?
In Science a theory is a well
supported, testable explanation of
phenomena that have occurred in the
natural world.
Example:
Cell theory
Atomic theory
Gravitational theory
http://www.avgoe.de/StarChild/DOCS/STARCH00/questions/apple_falling.gif
http://sixthsense.osfc.ac.uk/chemistry/atomic_structure2/atom.gif
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VOCAB
ADAPTATION- Any inherited characteristic
that increases an organism’s chance of
survival
http://www.wildlife-traps.com/skunks.html
http://www.atomtigerzoo.com/photos/images/20060421233733_duckfeet.jpg
WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY?
OVERPRODUCTION of OFFSPRING
Capacity to over-reproduce seems
characteristic of all species.
http://www.biospheres.com/photogallery2ag/images/ladybugs_jpg.jpg
http://www.3kitty.org/travelrama/Photos/123-21-4x6.jpg
http://atthecreation.com/DEER/too.many.deer.jpg
WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY?
STRUGGLE FOR EXISTANCE means
that members of each species must
compete for food, space, and
other resources.
WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY?
GENETIC VARIATION is found
naturally in all populations
Image from www.biologyzone.com
http://www3.nationalgeographic.com/animals/images/primary/zebra-herd.jpg
http://www.wasatchcomputers.net/gallery/elk_fight.jpg
WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY?
Some organisms in a population are
less likely to survive.
http://www.cartoonstock.com/newscartoons/cartoonists/rrs/lowres/rrsn69l.jpg
VOCAB
Ability of an individual to survive and
reproduce in its specific environment
= FITNESS
http://www.cartoonstock.com/newscartoons/cartoonists/cga/lowres/cgan170l.jpg
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WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY?
SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST =
Organisms which are better adapted
to their environment tend to produce
more offspring than organisms without
those traits.
WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY?
Over time,
NATURAL SELECTION
results in changes in the
inherited characteristics of a
population.
These changes increase a
species’ fitness in its environment.
How Does Evolution Really Work?
http://www.poster.net/bedard/bed202.jpg
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER !
•POPULATIONS evolve
NOT INDIVIDUALS.
•NATURAL SELECTION only
works on heritable traits.
•A trait that is favorable in one
environment may be useless or
detrimental in another.
http://groups.wfu.edu/ModelUN/images/Cover/Oranges.jpg
http://www.fx.clemson.edu/~ablank/126436919.Broccoli.jpg
http://www.butterball.com/en/images/plan_n_prep/preparing/carving1.jpg
THINK ABOUT IT
What do oranges, broccoli and
Butterball turkeys have to do
with EVOLUTION?
WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY?
DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION
suggests that each species has
descended with changes
from other species over time.
This idea suggests that all living
species are related to each other
and that all species, living and extinct,
share a common ancestor.
EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION:
selection
1. Artificial
________________
Fossil record
2. ________________
Geographic Distribution
3. _______________
Anatomical homologies
4. _______________
Embryology
5. _______________
Molecular homologies
6. _______________
see Natural selection happen
7. Can
_______________
(Answers to come in this slide show!)
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ARTIFICIAL SELECTION WORKS
WE’VE DONE IT WITH PLANTS
Nature provides the variation through
mutation and sexual reproduction and
humans select those traits that they find
useful
EX: We have selected
for and bred cows to
produce more milk,
turkeys with more
breast meat, etc.
http://www.pp3moo.com/hm2cow.jpg
http://lazerbrody.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/turkey.gif
BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reece Prentice Hall Publishing©2005
WE’VE DONE IT WITH ANIMALS
If humans can
select for
beneficial traits,
why can’t nature?
If artificial selection
can achieve so much
change in relatively
short time, why can’t
major changes happen
over thousands of
generations?
http://groups.wfu.edu/ModelUN/images/Cover/Oranges.jpg
http://www.fx.clemson.edu/~ablank/126436919.Broccoli.jpg
http://www.butterball.com/en/images/plan_n_prep/preparing/carving1.jpg
THINK ABOUT IT
Now you know what broccoli and
Butterball turkeys have to do with
evolution!
(Answers about oranges to come in this slide show!)
http://www.windows.ucar.edu/earth/geology/images/dogs_sm.jpg
How Do We Know Evolution Happens?
The Fossil Record
provides evidence that
organisms have changed
over time.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/img/bifossils.gif
If evolution has happened, we should be
able to find evidence of evolution in the
fossil record AND WE HAVE !
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Tiktaalik_BW.jpg
BBC Tiktaalik video
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/lines/IAtransitional.shtml
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Lots of TRANSITIONAL FOSSILS have been found
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/images/news/tiktaalik_reconstruction.jpg
TIK-TAALIK
Intermediate between fish and early tetrapods
• Fins have basic wrist bones and simple fingers
• Earliest fish with a neck
• Discovered by Neil Shubin and Ted Daeschler in 2004
Scientific American; Dec 2005; Vol 293; p100-107
http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T014608A.gif
GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION =
BIOGEOGRAPHY
GALAPAGOS FINCHES
If Darwin’s theory is correct you would
expect to find closely related yet
different species living in a
geographic region as they spread into
nearby habitats and evolve.
That’s EXACTLY what we do see!
The beaks of Galapagos finches have
adapted to eating a variety of foods
http://www.newtonswindow.com/problem-solving.htm
GALAPAGOS TORTOISES
If Darwin’s theory is correct you would
also expect to find different species
living in far apart geographic regions
but similar habitats becoming more alike
as they adapt to similar environments.
Intermediate vegetation
Intermediate necks
Little vegetation
Long necks
Image from: BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publisher©2006
Lots of vegetation
Short necks
That’s EXACTLY what we do see!
Tortoises adapted to different habitats as they
spread from the mainland to the different islands.
= DIVERGENT EVOLUTION = ADAPTIVE RADIATION
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BOTH LIVE IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS
http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/gallery/descript/TigerShark/scars.JPG
Adapted to similar
environments, but
evolved independently
from different ancestors.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/guides/456900/456973/html/nn1page1.stm
SUGAR GLIDER
in Australia is a marsupial
more closely related to
Kangaroos than North
American
FLYING SQUIRRELS
because
its ancestors were
marsupials.
Whales and sharks have a similar body design
even though they are very different organisms
(one is a fish; the other, a mammal)
because they have independently adapted to
living in a similar environment.
= CONVERGENT EVOLUTION
HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURESForelimbs of all mammals share same
arrangement of bones that can be
traced to same embryological origin
EVOLUTION explains why certain
characteristics
in related species have an
Section 15-3
underlying similarity.
Turtle
Alligator
Bird
Mammal
Ancient lobe-finned fish
BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reece Prentice Hall Publishing©2005
amnion /am·ni·on/ (am´ne-on) bag of waters; the extraembryonic membrane of
birds, reptiles, and mammals, which lines the chorion and contains the fetus and
the amniotic fluid
VESTIGIAL ORGANS
Some homologous structures are vestigial and
have no useful function even though they are
still present.
Examples:
Hipbones and pelvis in whales and boa constrictors
Cecum (appendix) in humans
Skink legs
http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/27/117227-050-E1C9ABEE.jpg
http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/amnions
http://www.txtwriter.com/backgrounders/Evolution/EVpage12.html
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Most mammals have a pouch
between their small and large
intestine that contains bacteria
to digest plants called a cecum.
EMBRYOLOGY
Development of vertebrate embryos
follows same path
In humans the cecum
is shrunken and unused.
It is our appendix
Image from:
http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/litu/03_3.shtml
http://www.medicalgeo.com/images/appendix.gif
Same groups of undifferentiated cells develop in
the same order to produce the same tissues and
organs of all vertebrates, suggesting that they all
evolved from a common ancestor.
Why grow a tail and then lose it?
HUMAN EMBRYO
has a tail at 4
weeks which
disappears at 8
weeks
Pharyngeal pouches
become gills in fish,
parts of throat/ears
in humans
Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm
Nonfunctional legs in skinks
Why would an organism
possess organs without
function?
Why would an organism
grow a part and then
discard it?
If organisms evolved from ancestors in which that
part functioned, the gene code to make the part
would still be there even though it doesn’t work.
If the organ is not vital to survival, then
natural selection would not cause its elimination.
http://www.suite101.com/files/topics/6234/files/tail_HumanTail.gif
MOLECULAR HOMOLOGIES
• All life forms share same genetic
machinery (DNA & RNA)
• Universal genetic code
• Important genes share
highly conserved
sequences
http://www.medicalgeo.com/images/appendix.gif
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Similarities in protein sequences
suggests similarities in DNA
MOLECULAR HOMOLOGIES
Similarities in
DNA and
protein
sequences
suggest
relatedness
Image from: Modern Biology by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston
Human- 46 chromosomes
Chimpanzee- 48 chromosomes
Similarities in karyotypes
suggest an evolutionary
relationship
Human: http://www.nationmaster.com/wikimir/images/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/300px-Human_karyogram.png
Chimpanzee: Middle School Life Science , published by Kendall/Hunt.
Image from: BIOLOGY AP EDITION by Campbell and Reece; Prentice Hall Publishing©2005
Human- 46 chromosomes
Chimpanzee- 48 chromosomes
Even differences show relatedness
Chimpanzees have 2 smaller chromosome pairs we don’t have
Humans have 1 larger chromosome pair (#2) they don’t have.
Human: http://www.nationmaster.com/wikimir/images/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/300px-Human_karyogram.png
Chimpanzee: Middle School Life Science , published by Kendall/Hunt.
2. TELOMERES IN MIDDLE
→
Remember:
Protective TELOMERE
sequences found at
ends of chromosomes
→
http://joannenova.com.au/Speaking/Morslids.html
Human chromosome is only
human chromosome that has
telomere sequences at the
ends BUT ALSO IN THE
MIDDLE . . . suggesting it
was made by joining two
other chromosomes together.
→
http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm
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EXTRA CENTROMERE
_________________
Chromosome #2 has a second
inactive centromere region . . .
suggesting it was made by
joining two other chromosomes
together.
BANDING PATTERN MATCHES
________________________
If you take the two smaller
chromosomes they have that
we don’t, and place them end
to end, the banding pattern
is identical to human
chromosome #2
→
Which chromosomes?
http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm
http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm
Why don’t dogs and cats need to eat
fresh fruit, but you do?
Fish, amphibians, reptiles, and most
mammals can make their own vitamin C,
but humans can’t make vitamin C. Without
fresh fruit, humans end up with scurvy.
http://www.naturescornermagazine.com/NaturesBlog/images/dog%20care%20in%20summer.jpg
http://www.alpo.com/where.aspx
Human DNA contains the gene that
codes for the enzyme to make
vitamin C, but it is nonfunctional.
Guess what other group of organisms
lack the ability to make their own
Vitamin C?
http://www.med.uc.edu/departme/cellbiol/Image7.gif
http://www.rachelleb.com/images/2005_02_22/scurvy.jpg
PSEUDOGENES are vestigial genes.
EX: Humans have more than 99
different odor receptor genes, but more
than 70% of them are nonfunctional.
PRIMATES…
which includes
chimpanzees, orangutans,
gorillas, and other apes.
http://www.animationplayhouse.com/new/dogs2.html
http://groups.wfu.edu/ModelUN/images/Cover/Oranges.jpg
http://unraveling.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/nose_1.jpg
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BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reece
We can see Natural selection happen
Slide by Kim [email protected] http://www.explorebiology.com/
BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reece
We can see Natural selection happen
Can see Natural selection happen
EX: Changes in disease-causing microbes that
produce new organisms and new diseases.
Bird flu
_______
http://www.hhmi.org/askascientist/images/hiv.gif
HIV
___
Antibiotic-resistant
tuberculosis
__________________________
Why does evolution matter now?
http://www.hipusa.com/eTools/webmd/A-Z_Encyclopedia/tuberculosis.jpg
Researchers have developed numerous
drugs to combat HIV
PEPPERED MOTH
– But using these medications selects for
viruses resistant to the drugs
Patient
No. 1
Patient No. 2
Patient No. 3
Weeks
Graph from BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reece
Data from Kim Foglia @ www.biologyzone.com
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Slide by Kim [email protected]
Slide from Kim [email protected]
PBS EVOLUTION VIDEO CLIPS
•
•
Isn’t Evolution Just a Theory?
QuickTime
•
•
Who was Charles Darwin?
QuickTime
•
•
How Do we Know Evolution Happens?
QuickTime
•
•
How Does Evolution Really Work?
QuickTime |
•
•
Why Does Evolution Matter Now?
QuickTime
•
•
Why is Evolution Controversial Anyway?
QuickTime
http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/trimethylamine/fish.gif
http://www.ca4h.org/4hresource/clipart/animals/pics/dog.gif
http://www.madlantern.com/clipart/cindexw.htm
Image Sources
http://www.geocities.com/TheTropics/2428/directory.html
http://www.gifs.net
http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/homepage.htm
http://www.seattleschools.org/schools/blaine/
http://www.kidskonnect.com/Lions/lion.gif
http://www.gifs.net
http://www.dallas-zoo.org/featured/featured.asp?page=wc
http://www.animationlibrary.com
http://www.dynamicearth.co.uk/education/images/tree_frog.jpg
http://www.drtoy.com/news/
http://anthro.palomar.edu/animal/images/platypus.gif
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