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Transcript
Objective 1
In your textbook, read about the discovery of protons and neutrons.
Complete the following table of proton, electron, and neutron characteristics.
Particle
Symbol
Location
Relative Charge
Relative Mass
1. Proton
2.
n
1/1840
3.
Section 4.3
How Atoms Differ
In your textbook, read about atomic number.
For each statement below, write true or false.
_____________________ 4. The number of neutrons in an atom is referred to as its atomic number.
_____________________ 5. The periodic table is arranged by increasing atomic number.
_____________________ 6. Atomic number is equal to the number of electrons in an atom.
_____________________ 7. The number of protons in an atom identifies it as an atom of a particular
element.
_____________________ 8. Most atoms have either a positive or a negative charge.
Answer the following questions.
9. Lead has an atomic number of 82. How many protons and electrons does lead have?
______________________________________________________________________________________________
10. Oxygen has 8 electrons. How many protons does oxygen have? ____________________
11. Zinc has 30 protons. What is its atomic number? ______________________
12. Astatine has 85 protons. What is its atomic number? ______________________
13. Rutherfordium has an atomic number of 104. How many protons and electrons does it have?
______________________________________________________________________________________________
14. Polonium has an atomic number of 84. How many protons and electrons does it have?
______________________________________________________________________________________________
15. Nobelium has an atomic number of 102. How many protons and electrons does it have?
______________________________________________________________________________________________
In your textbook, read about isotopes and mass number.
Determine the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons for each isotope described below.
16. An isotope has atomic number 19 and mass number 39.
______________________________________________________________________________________________
17. An isotope has 14 electrons and a mass number of 28.
______________________________________________________________________________________________
18. An isotope has 21 neutrons and a mass number of 40.
______________________________________________________________________________________________
19. An isotope has an atomic number 51 and a mass number 123.
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Answer the following question.
20. Which of the isotopes in problems 13–16 are isotopes of the same element? Identify the element.
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Write each isotope below in symbolic notation. Use the periodic table to determine the atomic
number of each isotope.
21. neon-22 ______________
23. cesium-133 ______________
22. helium ______________
24. uranium-234 _______________
Label the mass number and the atomic number on the following isotope notation.
25. ___________________
26. ___________________
24
12
Mg
Objective 2
Average Atomic Mass
In your textbook, read about mass of individual atoms.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
1. The mass of an electron is
a. smaller than the mass of a proton.
b. smaller than the mass of a neutron.
c. a tiny fraction of the mass of an atom.
d. all of the above.
2. The atomic mass of an atom is usually not a whole number because it accounts for
a. only the relative abundance of the atom’s isotopes.
b. only the mass of each of the atom’s isotopes.
c. the mass of the atom’s electrons.
d. both the relative abundance and the mass of each of the atom’s isotopes.
Chemistry: Matter and Change
Study Guide99
Use the figures to answer the following questions.
4. What is the atomic number of osmium? _____________________
5. What is the chemical symbol for niobium? _______________________
6. What is the atomic mass of osmium? ____________________
7. What units is the atomic mass reported in? ____________________
8. How many protons and electrons does an osmium atom have? A niobium atom?
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Calculate the atomic mass of each element described below. Then use the periodic table to identify
each element.
9.
Isotope
Mass (amu)
Percent Abundance
63
X
62.930
69.17
65
X
64.928
30.83
Mass (amu)
Percent Abundance
10.
Isotope
35
X
34.969
75.77
37
X
36.966
24.23
Chemistry: Matter and Change
Study Guide100
Objective 3 and 4
Section 4.4
Unstable Nuclei and Radioactive Decay
In your textbook, read about radioactivity.
For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.
Column A
________ 1.
Column B
The rays and particles that are emitted by a radioactive material
a. nuclear reaction
________ 2. A reaction that involves a change in an atom’s nucleus
b. beta radiation
________ 3. The process in which an unstable nucleus loses energy spontaneously
c. radiation
d. radioactive decay
________ 4. Fast-moving electrons
In your textbook, read about types of radiation.
Use the diagram to answer the questions.
5. Which plate do the beta particles bend toward? Explain.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________
6. Explain why the gamma rays do not bend.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________
7. Explain why the path of the beta particles bends more than the path of
Chemistry: Matter and Change
Study Guide101
Complete the following table of the characteristics of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.
Radiation Type
8. Alpha
9.
10.
Section 24.1
Composition
Symbol
Mass (amu)
Charge
1/1840
High-energy electromagnetic radiation
Nuclear Radiation
In your textbook, read about the terms used to describe nuclear changes.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
alpha particle
beta particles
radioactivity
gamma ray
radiation
X-ray
radioisotope
radioactive decay
The discovery of the (11) ___________________ in 1895 by Wilhelm Roentgen opened a
whole new field of research. Among those who worked in this new field were Pierre and Marie
Curie. The Curies discovered that some forms of matter give off (12) ________________, a
combination of particles and energy. Marie Curie named this process (13) ________________
Another term used to describe the process by which one element spontaneously changes into
another element is (14) ____________________. Any isotope that undergoes such changes is
called a(n) (15)___________________.
There are three common forms of radiation. One type is a form of energy known as
(16) ________________. The other types of radiation consist of particles. The form of radiation
containing the heavier particle is made up of helium nuclei called (17) ___________________. The form
of radiation containing the lighter particle consists of electrons called
(18) ___________________
Section
24.2 Radioactive Decay
In your textbook, read about the changes that take place in an atomic nucleus when it decays.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
19. The number of stable isotopes that exist compared to the number of unstable isotopes is
a. much less.
b. much more.
c. slightly more.
d. about the same.
20. The isotope formed by the beta decay of
a. 18.
Chemistry: Matter and Change
b. 39.
40
19
K has an atomic number of
c. 20.
Study Guide99
d. 21.
21. The isotope formed by the alpha decay of
a. 234.
234
89
238
91
150
66
Ac .
b.
Dy .
24. The decay of
a.
4
2
Section
c. 238.
d. 240.
Pa decays by beta emission, the isotope formed is
238
90
Th .
23. The isotope formed by the alpha decay of
a.
U has a mass number of
b. 236.
22. When the isotope
a.
238
92
b.
162
69
Tm Tm yields
He .
150
67
154
66
Ho .
162
68
c.
237
92
U.
d.
238
92
U.
c.
150
64
Gd .
d.
154
67
Ho .
Dy is
Er and
c. .
b. e–.
d. e+ .
24.3 Nuclear Reactions
In your textbook, read about the process of induced nuclear transmutation.
For each statement below, write true or false.
___________________
25.
Transmutation is the conversion of an atom of one element to an atom of
another element.
___________________ 26.
All nuclear reactions involve some type of nuclear transmutation.
___________________
27.
Scientists induce transmutations by bombarding stable nuclei with highenergy alpha, beta, or gamma radiation.
___________________
28.
The half-life of a radioisotope is the time it takes for that isotope to
decay.
___________________
29.
A radioisotope that decays very rapidly has a short half-life.
___________________
30.
Radioisotopes with very long half-lives are seldom found in Earth’s
crust.
___________________
31.
Mass number and atomic number are conserved in all nuclear reactions.
___________________
32.
The mass of a 25.0 g piece of
3.1 g after 7.2 hr.
Chemistry: Matter and Change
Study Guide100
238
96
Cm (half-life: 2.4 hr) will be reduced to
Chemistry: Matter and Change
Study Guide101