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Transcript
Tasmanian Climate Action Council’s
advice to the Tasmanian
Government on the
Tasmanian Wedges Report1
Opportunities to Reduce
Tasmania’s Greenhouse
Gas Emissions
Tasmanian Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Project – Understanding the Potential for
Reducing Tasmania’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions: McLennan, Magasanik Associates (February
2010). (Available at: www.climatechange.tas.gov.au)
1
Table of contents
Chair’s Foreword ....................................................................................................... i
Executive Summary ................................................................................................. ii
The Wedges Report ...........................................................................................................ii
Overarching Issues for Government .................................................................................. iii
Opportunities by sector ...................................................................................................... v
Need for decisive action .................................................................................................. viii
1. Context and Background .................................................................................. 1
2. The Tasmanian Wedges Report and Key Findings ......................................... 2
3. Overarching Issues in the Transition to a Low Carbon Tasmania ................ 4
3.1.
Government leadership and action ......................................................................... 4
3.2.
Implications of the CPRS deferral ........................................................................... 6
3.3.
Setting of interim targets ......................................................................................... 7
3.4.
Avoiding new or additional emissions intensity........................................................ 9
3.5.
Imported energy.................................................................................................... 11
4. Opportunities by sector .................................................................................. 13
4.1.
Energy .................................................................................................................. 13
4.2.
Manufacturing and Industrial Processes ............................................................... 19
4.3.
Transport .............................................................................................................. 21
4.4.
Agriculture ............................................................................................................ 25
4.5.
Forestry ................................................................................................................ 28
4.6.
Waste management .............................................................................................. 29
4.7.
Community ........................................................................................................... 32
5. Summary of Recommendations ..................................................................... 36
Appendix ................................................................................................................. 48
Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
Chair’s Foreword
Over the past two years, Tasmania has generated considerable momentum on climate
change action, with its Climate Change (State Action) Act 2008, and the establishment of
both the Tasmanian Climate Change Office (TCCO) and the independent Tasmanian
Climate Action Council (TCAC).
The Tasmanian Government is acting in its own back yard too by reducing its own emissions
following its Australia first whole-of-government emissions audit, and with the help now of a
network of climate change champions across each of the Agencies. Early reports on those
efforts are now available on the TCCO website.
Over its first year of operation, the TCAC has focused on providing the Premier and Minister
Assisting the Premier on Climate Change with advice for climate change leadership by the
Tasmanian Government, including the adoption of a principle based approach to climate
efforts where Tasmania strives for: leadership; shared responsibility; best practice;
accelerated outcomes; creative thinking and innovation; and openness and transparency on
all climate change action across government, business and the community.
Amongst its recommendations, the TCAC has advised that planning schemes need to
incorporate sustainability objectives; that the built environment must be transformed to
achieve emissions reductions; that business must be engaged in climate change mitigation;
that state infrastructure planning must prioritise climate change preparedness; and that the
community must be engaged in climate action.
Recently the TCAC has been charged with reviewing and responding to the Tasmanian
Wedges Report in order to present its advice to Government on priority actions, now in the
context of no likely national carbon price in the near future. The TCAC argues in its advice
here that urgent action is still highly desirable.
Tasmania is well placed to act decisively on climate change. It has the renewable energy
capacity, the considerable gains to be made from adopting energy efficiency, the economic
development opportunities to be associated with a low emissions brand, and carbon rich
storage in its forests and agricultural lands.
So it is with much pleasure that the TCAC presents its advice here to the Minister for Climate
Change, Nick McKim MP, and through him to the Tasmanian Government, the Parliament,
and to the Tasmanian community and its businesses and industries.
We hope that our advice stimulates debate about climate action for years to come, and we
look forward to robust political and community debate about pathways to a more sustainable,
low carbon future where Tasmania can show leadership at all times, indeed where in the
future it is known globally for doing so.
Associate Professor Kate Crowley
Chair, Tasmanian Climate Action Council
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
Executive Summary
The Wedges Report
In January 2010, the Tasmanian Government sought the advice of the Tasmanian Climate
Action Council (the Council) on the findings of the report Tasmanian Greenhouse Gas
Emission Reduction Project - Understanding the Potential for Reducing Tasmania’s
Greenhouse Gas Emissions (commonly referred to as the Tasmanian Wedges Report).
The Government specifically sought the Council’s advice on recommended policy actions
and initiatives, consistent with Tasmania’s legislated emission reduction target2. Details of
the context and background to the Wedges Report and to the Government’s request for
advice are set out in Section 1 of this report to government.
The Council considers that the Wedges Report has delivered on its core objective to identify
and quantify greenhouse gas emission reduction opportunities, and the related costs, for
Tasmania. While the Wedges Report’s emissions abatement modelling has assumed that a
national Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS) would be in place in mid-2011, the
Council does not consider that the delay of a price on carbon until 2013, at the earliest,
materially impacts on the Wedges Report’s findings.
In framing its advice to government, the Council specifically draws attention to the two critical
findings of the Wedges Report. First, that under a business-as-usual scenario, Tasmania's
greenhouse gas emissions are projected to increase by around 45% by 20503. Second, that
sufficient abatement options, if fully realised, are available for Tasmania to meet its
legislated emission target.
Key findings of the Wedges Report are summarised in Section 2 of this report.
2
The State’s legislated emissions reduction target, as set out in the Climate Change (State Action) Act 2008,
requires emissions to be reduced to at least 60% below 1990 levels by 2050.
3
The Wedges Report projects Tasmania’s emissions to rise from around nine million tonnes of CO2 equivalent
(Mt CO2e) in 2007 to around 13 Mt CO2e in 2050 under a business as usual scenario.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
Overarching Issues for Government
Section 3 of this report sets out the overarching issues that the Council believes the
Government will need to address in making the transition to a low carbon Tasmania,
consistent with the legislated emission reduction target.
Government leadership
The Council considers that leadership by the Tasmanian Government in responding to
climate change will be critical. The Council recommends that the Tasmanian Government
demonstrates the required leadership by:

Ensuring that the right policy settings are in place to facilitate investment in, and
deployment of, low carbon technologies, while driving the changes needed in market and
consumer behaviour over the coming decades.

Focusing action on emission reduction across those areas of the economy in which
Tasmania has a significant comparative advantage and where the most significant
economic opportunities exist, including:

o
renewable energy development, generation and transmission;
o
energy efficiency across industry, business and the community; and
o
innovative and sustainable agriculture.
Implementing a whole-of-government approach to ensure that all Government policy,
investment, development, and infrastructure decisions take due account of climate
change, its potential impacts and emission reduction targets.

Adopting an active role in communicating the importance of climate change mitigation
and the importance of, and progress towards, the State’s emissions reduction target.
National policy setting
The Wedges Report is clear that Tasmania’s abatement action will need to be embraced
alongside national policy action including an effective carbon price and renewable energy
targets. In light of developments around the deferral of the proposed CPRS, it is therefore
important that the Government actively lobbies for early implementation of an effective
national carbon price.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
The setting of interim targets
The Wedges Report stated that the setting of interim targets to allow for a smooth
adjustment to the 2050 target is not recommended at this stage. However, the Council
believes that interim targets are important and needed, despite the uncertainty around
national targets, and that it is appropriate for the Council to provide advice on their setting.
However, due to the complexity of the issues involved, and the need for further consideration
and discussion, the Council’s formal advice on the setting of interim targets will be provided,
separately to this advice on the Wedges Report, later this year.
Avoiding emissions lock-in
It is clear from the Wedges Report that if the Tasmanian Government is to optimise the
State’s future transition to a low carbon economy, it must take immediate action to prevent
‘business as usual’ investment decision-making that results in ‘locking in’ additional
emissions intensity into the system. It is more efficient and cost-effective in the long-term to
prevent the lock-in of new emissions intensity than it is to retrospectively introduce changes
to existing infrastructure or plant or be forced in the future to contemplate the early
retirement of capital stock.
The Council believes all sectors of government, especially the State’s planning system and
State Economic Development and Infrastructure Strategies, are critical in this regard. Given
that the State’s large industrial facilities already account for around a third of Tasmania’s
total emissions, it is important the Government seek to attract only ‘best in class’ large scale
industrial developments – to accelerate the future deployment of low carbon technologies.
Imported energy
The Wedges Report modelling suggests the majority of the projected rise in Tasmania’s
electricity demand would be supplied from imported coal-fired electricity.
Under current national carbon accounting methodologies, however, imported electricity
emissions are not included as part of Tasmania’s emissions inventory and are therefore
outside the scope of emissions subject to the State’s legislated reduction target. As a result
of this accounting treatment of imported electricity generation, the Tasmanian Government
has less incentive to invest in or encourage energy efficiency improvements to reduce this
rise in energy demand.
Despite this, the Council notes that there are strong economic (as well as environmental)
incentives for Tasmania to address these imported emissions and to tap the benefits from
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
harnessing Tasmania’s renewable resources. The Government needs to raise awareness of
the State’s growing dependence on imported coal-fired electricity and to set a separate
target for renewable energy exports.
Opportunities by sector
The Wedges Report identified a range of emissions reduction opportunities across the major
sectors of Tasmania’s economy. The Council has considered these and made a number of
recommendations in Section 4 of this report.
The focus of the Council’s recommendations includes stationary energy (energy generation
and fuel combustion), industrial processes and transport, which collectively account for three
quarters of Tasmania’s emissions abatement potential. The Council has also considered
Tasmania’s other important sectors of agriculture and forestry as well as the community
sector and waste management.
Energy
Tasmania has a number of comparative advantages in terms of renewable and low emission
electricity generation (hydro, wind, gas, biomass, solar, tidal and geothermal). The Council
believes this must be a priority for action by the Government. Consequently, the Council
recommends the Government immediately develop a comprehensive State Renewable
Energy Strategy as part of an over-arching goal of achieving net electricity export status by
2020.
In line with this, efficient planning arrangements, efficient networks and good grid
connectedness will be required if Tasmania is to ultimately attract a higher portion of the
available capital for renewable energy projects. Energy efficiency must also be a priority and
the Council recommends that the Government develops a state based energy efficiency
strategy that includes clear energy efficiency targets and the funding of demonstration
projects.
The Council recommends that the recently established Tasmanian Renewable Energy
Development Board be given a clear mandate to oversee the growth of the local renewables
industry and the necessary policy settings and market conditions needed for attracting
private investment.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
Industrial processes
The Wedges Report found that the manufacturing sector accounts for 31% of Tasmania’s
total greenhouse gas emissions. The vast majority of these emissions arise from direct fuel
combustion and industrial processing at the State’s six largest industrial facilities. This
presents a significant challenge but also a unique opportunity for reducing Tasmania’s
emissions.
The Council recommends that the Government develops individual emissions reduction
‘partnerships’ with the State’s largest industrial emitters and actively pursues opportunities to
convert direct coal combustion to gas or biomass cogeneration (or tri-generation) systems.
Transport
While transport is currently the third largest source of emissions in Tasmania, it presents a
challenge in achieving significant near-term reductions due to the lag time between initial
investment and the eventual, measurable benefits of any action.
The Wedges Report identifies new generation biofuels for freight vehicles and buses as
representing some 44% of the potential transport emission savings. In line with this finding,
state strategies for supply and production of biofuels for transport should be developed.
The Council also believes that all long term planning initiatives, particularly those relating to
Tasmania’s freight transport system, must fully factor in emissions and efficiency impacts
and requirements. Additionally, initiatives to reduce demand for passenger vehicle travel
need to be pursued.
Agriculture
International emissions reporting methodologies applying to agriculture are likely to change
significantly in coming decades and the inclusion of soil carbon in emissions reporting, for
example, could significantly alter the State’s agricultural emissions profile. So, until fuller
carbon accounting for agriculture, land use and land use change is developed and adopted,
the setting of a meaningful emission abatement policy direction will remain problematic.
Under current accounting rules, however, the agriculture sector currently accounts for 25%
of Tasmania’s emissions, making it the State’s second largest source of emissions.
While reforestation of agricultural land provides the clearest short term abatement
opportunity in the sector, the Council believes that any policies to actively promote farmbased forest replanting will need to be balanced with policies that adequately protect existing
and future farming.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
Beyond reforestation, Tasmania must be an early adopter of sustainable farming
approaches as they prove to be commercially viable. This includes more holistic sustainable
farming systems - including optimal feed mix, fertilizer usage, minimum tillage, and other
landcare strategies. The Council believes that sustainable farming provides a number of
important abatement opportunities and long-term productivity gains for Tasmanian
agriculture, particularly in the high emission livestock (sheep and cattle) farming sectors.
The Council also believes that the Tasmanian agricultural sector has an opportunity to be a
‘fast follower’ in the adoption of alternative fuel sources such as biofuels and the production
and application of alternative fertilizers such as seaweeds and compost solutions.
Forestry
Like agriculture, meaningful emissions abatement policy development in the forestry sector
remains problematic as internationally agreed emissions accounting rules currently do not
cater for a range of forestry emissions sources and bio-sequestration opportunities.
Given this, the Government should commission a complete and independent carbon cycle
assessment of Tasmania’s forestry estate (regrowth, old growth and plantation) to guide
policy towards managing the forestry estate in a sustainable and profitable manner and
optimising climate change outcomes.
The significant potential for forestry biomass (waste or dedicated) as a renewable energy
resource should also be assessed as identified in the Wedges Report.
Waste management
While the waste sector accounts for around only 4% of Tasmania’s total greenhouse gas
emissions, the Wedges Report found that it was possible for 80% of these emissions to be
abated. Although this abatement potential is modest in the big picture, it is relatively cost
effective and would provide important signalling benefits for the community.
Beyond recycling and public education programs, the Tasmanian Government should
evaluate waste to energy options wherever large quantities of waste are produced and
disposed of, including the use of waste organic material as an energy source for power
generation or process heat, and for the production of char material (stable carbon).
Community
Community action is already identified as a priority in the current Tasmanian Government
climate change policy and the Wedges Report identified the need to reduce barriers to
behavioural change across the community.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
The Council recommends that the Government develop a comprehensive Community
Climate Action Strategy to focus action on:

community-based engagement and education;

energy, water and transport efficiency initiatives; and

recycling and waste minimisation.
Initiatives to improve the energy and water efficiency of the Tasmanian housing stock over
the next decade are particularly important, as is the enhancement of public transport
opportunities.
The Tasmanian Government should also begin development of a state based adaptation
strategy to prepare the Tasmanian community for more extreme weather events, whilst
helping communities to adjust to the social, economic and environmental impacts that
ultimately arise from global warming scenarios.
Need for decisive action
Critically, the lack of effective national policy means that the Tasmanian Government must
act decisively to ensure that the State’s projected emissions growth is addressed and
reversed. Without decisive near-term action to reduce emissions in some of the State’s key
emissions sectors, future efforts to meet the State legislated emissions reduction target will
become increasingly difficult and expensive.
Policy making at the State level must be carefully prioritised over the coming years to ensure
that State actions complement any future introduction of an effective national carbon price.
In particular, the Tasmanian Government should ensure that barriers to private investment
and other actions facilitating a transition toward a low carbon economy are identified and
addressed. It is particularly important that Tasmanians and Tasmanian businesses are
prepared to respond to the impacts of a future carbon price and to take up the most cost
effective opportunities to reduce emissions.
The Council believes that if the Government adopts the recommendations set out in this
report, Tasmania will be firmly on the path towards meeting its legislated emission reduction
targets.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
1. Context and Background
The Climate Change (State Action) Act 2008 established a greenhouse gas emissions target
to reduce Tasmania’s emissions to at least 60 per cent below 1990 levels by 2050. The Act
also established the Tasmanian Climate Action Council (the Council) with a mandate to
provide independent advice to the Government on climate change issues affecting
Tasmania, including:

The setting of any interim emissions reduction targets for the State and the setting of any
emissions reduction targets for specific sectors of the State economy;

Progress being made towards achieving the State’s legislated 2050 emissions reduction
target and any other State emissions reduction targets;

The effectiveness of initiatives or methods employed to achieve those emissions
reduction targets;

Any alternative or additional measures capable of being employed to achieve the
emissions reduction targets;

The extent to which any methods prescribed by the regulations are being achieved or
should be revised;

Progress being made towards identifying and implementing strategies for adapting to the
expected impacts of climate change; and

Other matters relating to the mitigation of, and adaptation to, climate change.
To inform the formulation of policies required to meet the State’s legislated emissions
reduction target, the Government engaged McLennan Magasanik Associates (MMA) in
December 2008 to identify and quantify greenhouse gas emission reduction opportunities
and related costs for Tasmania.
Following the release of the resulting MMA Report, titled Tasmanian Greenhouse Gas
Emission Reduction Project - Understanding the Potential for Reducing Tasmania’s
Greenhouse Gas Emissions (and commonly referred to as the Tasmanian Wedges Report),
the Tasmanian Government sought the advice of the Tasmanian Climate Action Council on
the Report’s findings. Specifically, the Government requested the Council’s advice on
recommended policy actions and initiatives, consistent with Tasmania’s legislated emission
reduction target.
While basing its advice principally upon the findings of the Wedges Report, the Council has
also drawn on other relevant information available to the Council and the Government.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
2. The Tasmanian Wedges Report and Key
Findings
The Tasmanian Wedges Report4 was publicly released in February 2010.
The Wedges Report projected that, under a business-as-usual scenario, Tasmania's
greenhouse gas emissions would increase by around 45% by 2050 – rising from around nine
million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (Mt CO2e) in 2007 to around 13 Mt CO2e in 2050.
Importantly, the Report found that sufficient abatement options, if fully realised, were
available for Tasmania to meet its legislated emission target.
However, the Report’s emissions abatement modelling was also based on the assumption
that the now deferred national Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS), as well as an
expanded Renewable Energy Target (RET), would be in place, in line with the Federal
Government’s policies in 2009. An effective national price on carbon is fundamental in
achieving significant emissions reductions in Tasmania.
In terms of Tasmania’s specific abatement options, the Wedges Report found that:

Three quarters of the abatement potential lies within three sectors: stationary energy
(energy generation and fuel combustion); industrial processes; and transport;

Tasmania has important opportunities to meet the projected growth in electricity demand
through increased renewable energy generation, cogeneration opportunities and energy
efficiency measures; and

Tasmania potentially has sufficient renewable energy generating capacity to both meet
future State energy demand and export surplus electricity to the mainland.
Tasmanian Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Project – Understanding the Potential for
Reducing Tasmania’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions: McLennan, Magasanik Associates (February
2010). (Available at: www.climatechange.tas.gov.au)
4
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
The Wedges Report also proposed a range of possible actions addressing barriers to
achieving the legislated target and maximising the State's ability to secure opportunities
created by the transition to a low carbon economy. These included:

Developing Tasmania's renewable energy resources – specifically, hydro, wind, solar,
geothermal, wave, tidal and biomass as key State renewable resources;

Removing policy and other barriers to the uptake of energy efficiency measures;

Encouraging planning that enables building design and location to maximise energy and
transport efficiency and that accommodates alternative transport technologies;

Establishing a research and development program to adapt emerging abatement
technologies for the Tasmanian environment, such as algal carbon capture and
mitigation measures relevant to the agricultural sector;

Investigating the greenhouse gas emission benefits of modified forestry practices;

Improving public transport facilities, including walking and cycling tracks;

Facilitating the future development of networks for electric vehicle battery recharge and
replacement; and

Developing education programs for farmers on new emission reduction practices.
The full Wedges Report can be viewed at:
http://www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/government_action/wedges_report
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
3. Overarching Issues in the Transition to a
Low Carbon Tasmania
3.1. Government leadership and action
The Government has a clear opportunity to demonstrate a leadership position on climate
change mitigation by ensuring effective policy settings that facilitate investment and
deployment of low carbon technologies, and drive changes in market and consumer
behaviour over the coming decades.
Without effective Government leadership, the task of reducing emissions becomes more
uncertain, less cost effective and more difficult to achieve.
The Government should therefore focus on developing and prosecuting a leadership role, in
particular across those areas of the economy in which Tasmania has a significant
comparative advantage and where the most significant additional economic opportunities
exist including:

Renewable energy development, generation and transmission;

Energy efficiency across industry, business and the community; and

Innovative agriculture, business management and sustainable industry expansion.
The Council also considers that in adopting a leadership position on climate change action,
the Government cannot afford to accept ‘lowest common denominator’ policies and targets
that ultimately fail to address the challenge of climate change or fail to drive the necessary
changes in investment patterns and consumer behaviours. This will simply result in lost
opportunities for the Tasmanian economy and failure in meeting its legislated emissions
reduction target.
A number of Tasmania’s current climate change action commitments and policies arguably
fall well short of best practice5 in areas where Tasmania has clear advantages and
opportunities to lead on climate change action.
5
For example, commitment timeframes for the introduction of energy efficiency building standards; passenger
transport; infrastructure and exemptions to the national phase out of electric hot water system.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
The Government also has a clear role in educating and communicating on climate change in
order to elevate public awareness across Tasmania on the need for action and associated
opportunities for the State.
As a near-term priority, the Government should ensure any policy barriers to emissions
reduction at business and community levels are identified and addressed. This would assist
Tasmanians and Tasmanian businesses to operate as efficiently as possible under a likely
future carbon price scenario, while ensuring they are able to take up the most cost effective
opportunities to reduce emissions.
The Government should also adopt a whole-of-government approach to ensuring that
potential costs associated with an effective forward carbon price are factored into all of its
own major policy, investment, expenditure, infrastructure and development decisions. The
Tasmanian Treasury is well placed to devise such a mechanism and to make such
assessments as an integral part of its current responsibilities around the budget process.
Routine assessments of emission implications and future climate change impacts should be
a mandatory and intrinsic component of all government decision-making.
The Government will also need to pay considerable attention to the ongoing monitoring and
communication of the effectiveness of its policy actions and how these efforts translate over
time to emission reductions and enhanced climate outcomes with reduced future risks.
Council Recommendations:
The Tasmanian Climate Action Council recommends the Tasmanian Government:
3.1.1.
Implements a whole-of-government mechanism to ensure all Government
major policy, investment, development and infrastructure decisions
appropriately account for climate change and its impacts as well as the
State’s emission reduction target.
3.1.2.
Develops and prosecutes a leadership role across those areas of the
economy in which Tasmania has a significant comparative advantage and
where the most significant economic opportunities exist.
3.1.3.
Ensures that any policy barriers to emissions reduction at the business and
community levels are identified and addressed.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
3.1.4.
Ensures that all climate action policies, including existing mitigation and
adaptation policies, have clear outcomes / targets and are benchmarked
against national and international best practice.
3.1.5.
Leads by example by ensuring that Tasmanian Government efforts to reduce
its own emissions are properly implemented, monitored and reported.
3.1.6.
Actively communicates the importance of climate change mitigation and the
importance of, and progress towards, the State’s emissions reduction
target.
3.2. Implications of the CPRS deferral
The Wedges Report concludes that it is possible to achieve Tasmania’s legislated emission
reduction target if the available abatement options are fully realised. For this to be achieved,
however, the Report is clear that State-based abatement action needs to be embraced
alongside an effective national carbon price and renewable energy targets.
The abatement option modelling for the Wedges Report was in fact based on the
assumption that the CPRS would be implemented in July 2011 (as announced by the
Federal Government in May 2009). The Report regarded the CPRS as a key driver for the
necessary investment in low emission initiatives.
Consequently, the Federal Government’s recent announcement that the CPRS will be
delayed until 2013, at the earliest, has implications for the Wedges Report findings and for
the Council’s advice. Certainly, the emission reduction challenges facing Tasmania are more
difficult in the absence of an effective price on carbon and a meaningful national emissions
reduction target. A national emission reduction policy framework is clearly necessary to
deliver the scale of action required. Without this broader national framework and effective
carbon price, meeting Tasmania’s legislated targets could become arguably more costly and
difficult to achieve.
However, on the assumption that a national carbon price, of some kind, is implemented in or
soon after 2013, the Council finds that the conclusions and modelling of the Wedges Report
remain appropriate and relevant to informing its advice to Government.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
The Council also finds there are significant opportunities for action based on the Wedges
Report’s findings that can be taken in the near term, regardless of the CPRS deferral.
Leadership by the Tasmanian Government in this regard is imperative to effective action
across the State. Critically, without decisive State action to address the State’s emissions
intensive sectors, future efforts to meet the State’s legislated emissions reduction target will
become more difficult and expensive even with a national CPRS or future carbon price in
place.
Given the impact of the deferral of the CPRS on the effectiveness of State policy and action,
the Government must continue to advocate for a national policy framework that effectively
and efficiently delivers carbon pricing at levels sufficient to drive the necessary investments
in emissions reduction technologies and large scale renewable energy development. The
Council of Australian Governments (COAG) process will be important in this regard.
In particular, the Government must factor in the impact an eventual carbon price will have on
the State of Tasmania and its own policy initiatives and operations.
Council Recommendations:
The Tasmanian Climate Action Council recommends the Tasmanian Government:
3.2.1
Advocate for an improved national emission reduction policy framework
incorporating the early implementation of a national CPRS, or effective carbon
price.
3.2.2
Commit to near term action based on the Wedges Report’s findings, regardless
of the CPRS deferral.
3.3. Setting of interim targets
In commenting on the setting of interim targets, the Wedges Report stated that “setting
targets ... to allow for a smooth adjustment to the 2050 target is not recommended at this
stage. A Federal Target will be provided under a CPRS and longer term targets would be
impossible to set now since (Federal) targets for 2020 will not be known until around 2014”6.
6
The Wedges Report, page 11.
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However, given the deferral and challenges surrounding the uncertainty of the introduction of
the CPRS, the Council believes that interim targets are important and needed and that it is
appropriate for the Council to provide some initial comments on the setting of interim targets.
Tasmania’s interim emission reduction targets will need to serve several different purposes
and therefore should be constructed to fit those purposes. The Council believes two broad
categories of interim emission targets are needed in order to drive Government, industry and
community based actions, namely:
i. Interim targets that represent the maximum emissions acceptable, at say five-year
intervals, to ensure an achievable pathway or trajectory to the 2050 legislated target; and
ii. Interim targets that provide a roadmap of actions for specific sectors of the economy and
emission sources.
The first group of interim targets will be essential in monitoring Tasmania’s progress toward
achieving its legislated target but, on their own, will not ensure future success.
The second group of interim targets will need to be differentiated across sectors as some
sectors will need to make earlier and more aggressive emission reductions, while reductions
in other sectors are dependent on new technologies, processes or incentives which may
take longer to plan, implement or commercialise. Such sector targets should include both
outcomes and performance based indicators and time lines.
The Council also notes that progress toward interim targets will need to be closely monitored
and revised from time to time as the Tasmanian economy develops and new technologies
reach full commercialisation, as well as to reflect any future changes in national policy
settings. The degree of progress toward meeting interim targets may also necessitate
revision and recalibration of subsequent targets to ensure the legislated 2050 target is met.
This advice provides some recommendations for immediate action targets. However, due to
the complexity of the issues, and the need for further consideration and discussion, the
Council believes formal advice on the setting of interim targets should be provided
separately to its advice on the Wedges Report. The Council anticipates providing its initial
advice to the Government on the setting of interim targets later in 2010.
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3.4. Avoiding new or additional emissions intensity
One of the key challenges associated with achieving substantial reductions in emissions is
that the emissions intensity of existing equipment and infrastructure (e.g. industrial plant and
energy generation facilities) is effectively ‘locked in’ for the lifetime of the operational asset;
in some cases for 30-50 years.
A decision taken today to invest in new infrastructure or plant, such as a new fossil-fuel
energy asset, effectively ‘locks in’ the emissions intensity of the asset for its full life-cycle.
Similarly, new investments in road networks, parking, transport corridors and infrastructure,
need to be carefully assessed in terms of the future ancillary or ‘knock-on’ effects they can
have in ‘locking-in’ additional transport sector emissions intensity.
Significant levels of emissions intensity already exist within the economy as a result of
previous investment decisions and these present difficult challenges for the Tasmanian
Government to overcome.
Consequently, if the Tasmanian Government is to optimise the State’s future transition to a
low carbon economy it must take immediate action to prevent ‘business as usual’ investment
decision-making that results in the further ‘locking in’ of additional emissions intensive
infrastructure. Clearly, it is more efficient and cost-effective in the long-term to address these
issues up front than it is to retrospectively introduce changes to existing infrastructure or be
forced in the future to contemplate the early retirement of capital stock.
This will require significant leadership by the Government and represent a notable shift in the
dynamics of whole-of-government policy decision-making.
Council Recommendations:
The Tasmanian Climate Action Council recommends the Tasmanian Government:
3.4.1.
Takes immediate action to establish processes to prevent ‘business as
usual’ investment decision-making that results in the ‘locking in’ of new or
additional emissions intensive infrastructure.
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3.4.1.
Planning, economic and infrastructure policies
The State planning system, State Economic Development and Infrastructure Strategies and
government investment decision-making processes are all critical in preventing further
‘locking-in’ of additional emissions intensity as well as adaptation to future climate change
impacts. These are important policy tools not just for reducing emissions but for delivering
the economic competitiveness and efficiency that successful transition to a low carbon
economy will provide.
The challenge is to ensure that future infrastructure investment in Tasmania is directed
towards development that is innovative and that contributes to meeting the State’s legislated
emission reduction target.
Council Recommendations:
The Tasmanian Climate Action Council recommends that the Tasmanian Government:
Reviews relevant legislation underpinning Tasmania’s planning system to
3.4.2.
ensure developments and investments avoid the locking in of emissions
intensity consistent with the State’s transition to a lower carbon economy.
3.4.3.
Develops an implementation plan for the Tasmanian Infrastructure Strategy
that prioritises climate-ready transition for the State’s infrastructure,
particularly for energy and transport, ensuring all infrastructure stock is
audited for climate vulnerability and readiness.
3.4.4.
Amends development approval processes to require all new developments
in the State to be ‘best in class’ for energy efficiency and emissions
management.
3.4.2.
Industrial facilities
A small number of large industrial facilities currently account for around a third of the State’s
emissions profile – see discussion in Section 4.2. In itself, this should not imply that new,
large-scale industry should be avoided. In a future scenario where the State’s renewable
energy generation capacity exceeds local demand, additional large energy intensive
industrial facilities could be attracted to the State and, in doing so, contribute to global
emissions reduction efforts.
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Given the emission reduction task, the Council believes that the Tasmanian Government
should seek to attract industrial developments that are ‘best in class’ in terms of the
deployment of low carbon technologies. This will also be important in supporting the State’s
brand and credentials as a leader in renewable energy and low carbon intensity going
forward.
Council Recommendations:
The Tasmanian Climate Action Council recommends that the Tasmanian Government:
3.4.5.
Establishes a central requirement for all new major industrial facilities to
deploy ‘best in class’ energy efficiency and emissions management.
3.5. Imported energy
Modelling in the Wedges Report suggests that, under a business-as-usual scenario, the
majority of the projected rise in Tasmania’s electricity demand will be met by imported coalfired electricity. Increased emissions from electricity generation on the mainland and
imported to Tasmania are projected to reach over 11 Mt CO2e by 2050 (which is greater
than the State’s total emissions in 2007).
However, under Australia’s national greenhouse accounting methodologies, Tasmania’s
imported electricity emissions are not counted as part of the State’s emissions. Therefore the
large projected emissions increase from imported electricity is outside of the scope of
emissions subject to the State’s legislated reduction target. The implication of this is that the
Tasmanian Government has less incentive to invest in or encourage energy efficiency
improvements, or to reduce emissions from electricity generation despite the fact that such
improvements or reductions would reduce imports from the mainland that have much larger
embodied emissions than electricity generated in Tasmania.
Despite this, there are still strong economic incentives for Tasmania to develop policies to
address these growing emissions from ‘imported’ coal-fired electricity by harnessing less
emissions intensive resources including renewables, biomass sources and gas and waste
heat cogeneration.
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The Council believes the Government should build greater business and community
awareness of the extent and impacts of the State’s growing reliance on imported coal-fired
electricity.
The Council also believes that the Government should address the imported electricity
challenge as part of its emissions reduction programs involving renewable energy and
cogeneration initiatives, consistent with a goal of achieving net electricity export status.
Council Recommendations:
The Tasmanian Climate Action Council recommends the Tasmanian Government:
3.5.1.
Builds business and community awareness of the State’s growing and
predominant reliance on imported coal-fired electricity and implications for
Tasmania.
3.5.2.
Establish and pursue, alongside the legislated State emissions reduction
target, an emission reduction target associated with maximising the State’s
export of renewable electricity.
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4. Opportunities by sector
4.1. Energy
The Wedges Report identifies emissions reduction opportunities in the energy sector within
several specific categories.7 These opportunities are associated with: direct combustion for
energy and heat; electricity generation and importation; and electricity consumption.
Council’s advice in relation to each of these areas is discussed below.
4.1.1. Direct combustion for energy/heat
Wedges Report findings:

The projected growth in direct combustion emissions is mostly attributable to the six (6)
largest industrial facilities in the State, which currently account for around 31% of the
State’s total direct greenhouse gas emissions (p.18)

Under the business-as-usual scenario, Tasmania’s emissions from direct combustion
are projected to steadily grow from 2.2Mt CO2e in 2007 to 4.6Mt CO2e by 2050 (p.42).

The report shows a large potential to reduce Tasmania’s emissions from direct
combustion by 3.9Mt CO2e and to avoid 0.9Mt CO2e of imported emissions by 2050
(p.57).
Discussion:
Tasmania’s direct combustion for energy and/or heat accounts for 25% of Tasmania’s
emissions. Much of this involves the burning of coal or liquid fuels, with coal combustion
representing 14.1% and liquid fuels 4.6% of Tasmania’s emissions in 2007.
Most of the State’s direct combustion emissions, however, result from production at a small
number of large industrial facilities. Emissions from these facilities come from a range of
sources and processes and are discussed in detail, together with recommendations in
Section 4.2 - Manufacturing and Industrial Processes.
7
Emissions associated with the transport sector can also correctly be considered ‘energy’ sector emissions but
will be discussed in a separate section of this advice.
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4.1.2. Electricity generation and renewable energy
Wedges Report findings:

Emissions from electricity generation in the State are currently relatively low, at 7% of
the State’s total emissions, due to Tasmania’s high and growing level of imported
electricity8, hydro-electric generation and existing gas-fired electricity generation plants
(p.30 & 40).

Tasmania has a number of comparative advantages in terms of renewable and low
emissions electricity generation (hydro, wind, gas, biomass, solar, tidal and geothermal)
(p.54).

The displacement of the projected growth in imported electricity emissions could reduce
emissions at source by up to 17Mt CO2e in total by 2050 (6Mt CO2e by 2020) (p.55).
Discussion:
The Wedges Report found that Tasmania has a number of comparative advantages in terms
of renewable and low emissions electricity generation (hydro, wind, gas, biomass, solar, tidal
and geothermal). Despite this, the Report’s modelling showed that the majority of the
projected rise in Tasmania’s electricity demand under the business-as-usual scenario would
be supplied from imported coal-fired electricity (see Section 3.5 above).
In light of this, the Council considers that renewable energy must be a priority for action by
Government.
In addition, the Council believes that in light of the economic and environmental benefits for
Tasmania, the Government should adopt the goal of becoming a net electricity exporter by
2020 through focused and sustained policy and incentive programs that: drive down the cost
of renewable electricity generation; improve energy efficiency and reduce consumption; and
address any market barriers and failures. Given the potential that exists for Tasmania to
develop its significant renewable energy resources, the Council considers that Tasmania has
8
Under business-as-usual, the majority of the modelled rise in Tasmania’s electricity demand is likely to be supplied from
imported coal-fired electricity, with such imported emissions projected to grow steadily to reach over 11Mt CO2e by 2050 (more
than the State’s total emissions in 2007) (p.40).
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a particular opportunity to not only replace imported coal-fired electricity but to provide low
emission intensity electricity to other Australian States.
Attaining such an ambitious net electricity exporter goal will also require any market barriers
and failures, including those associated with the National Electricity Market (NEM), to be
addressed. The Wedges Report provides examples of possible measures such as
“supporting technological development and deployment of technologies that improve energy
efficiency and assisting companies apply for or otherwise attract funding for technologies
that improve energy efficiency”9. Examples of relevant Federal Government programs
include: the Green Building Fund and the Re-tooling for Climate Change program.
Pursuing such measures, in line with achieving net electricity export status, would deliver
economic advantages to the State, including making the State economy more resilient to the
effects of higher future carbon costs, while delivering clear environmental benefits of lower
emissions for both the State and the nation.
In terms of fostering the expansion of renewable energy, the Tasmanian Government will be
competing with other Australian and international jurisdictions in seeking to attract private
investment capital for renewable energy projects. The Federal Government's Mandatory
Renewable Energy Target (MRET) will assist in mobilising investment in renewable energy
but it doesn’t necessarily influence where the investment gets allocated geographically.
If Tasmania is to attract a higher proportion of the available capital, additional policy
initiatives and incentives will be required over and above a Renewable Energy Certificate
(REC) price and the national MRET. In particular, efficient planning approvals processes,
good networks and grid connectedness, attractive renewable resource potential, as well as
direct incentives, help investors to manage-down their risks.
In particular, opportunities to secure funding under any current or future Federal Government
renewable energy programs should also be actively pursued. The Federal Government’s
new $650 million Renewable Energy Future Fund announced in the 2010 Budget provides
an important opportunity for the Tasmanian Government to develop a business case for
renewable energy funding and to influence the Fund’s development. As part of this, the
Government should prioritise Tasmanian based climate-ready infrastructure and State
development proposals that showcase renewable solutions that are necessary for the rest of
Australia to effectively and efficiently transition to a low carbon economy.
9
Wedges Report, page 23.
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The Tasmanian Government should also develop initiatives that directly assist Tasmanians
and Tasmanian businesses to access funding available under relevant Federal Government
programs. And the Government should actively promote Tasmania’s potential as a location
for industry seeking a renewable energy base.
The recently established Tasmanian Renewable Energy Development Board should be
given a clear mandate to oversee the growth of the renewable energy industry including the
necessary policy settings and conditions required to attract private investment for renewable
energy.
Council Recommendations:
The Tasmanian Climate Action Council recommends the Tasmanian Government:
4.1.1.
Establish a Renewable Energy State target linked to the attainment of ‘net
electricity export’ status by 2020 and further increases in renewable energy
exports over the longer-term.
4.1.2.
Immediately develop a comprehensive Renewable Energy Strategy,
incorporating:
o
direct incentives (such as gross feed-in tariffs, demonstration grants, or
payroll tax exemptions) for new renewable energy developments;
o
improvements to transmission infrastructure, including smart-grid
technologies;
o
assistance for investors to buy-down project development risks; and
o
priority planning and development assessment processes for State
significant, large-scale renewable energy projects.
4.1.3.
Develop a Renewable Energy prospectus for Tasmania, outlining the State’s
renewable energy strategy and Tasmania’s capacity to provide climate
change solutions for the nation through renewable energy exports and
renewably powered industries.
4.1.4.
Actively pursue any available funding under Federal Government renewable
energy programs including:
o
Developing a business case for funding as part of the new $650 million
Federal Government Renewable Energy Future Fund; and
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o
Targeting opportunities for Tasmania to secure demonstration projects,
particularly where they complement the State’s own identified emissions
reduction priorities and showcase solutions to the rest of the nation.
4.1.5.
Develops initiatives that directly assist Tasmanians and Tasmanian
businesses to access Federal Government climate action funding, including
through provision of information, awareness building and support for the
development of business cases.
4.1.3. Electricity consumption
Wedges Report findings:

Electricity demand growth represents one of the largest future contributors to
Tasmania’s projected growth in greenhouse gas emissions.

In the commercial and residential sectors, improvements to, for example, energy
efficiency in refrigeration, water heating and higher star rated buildings represent an
estimated 1Mt CO2e/year of abatement potential by 2050 (pp61-62).

Reducing electricity demand in the industrial sector provides some 0.8Mt CO2e of
abatement potential by 2050 (p.61).

A range of immediate opportunities exist to reduce electricity demand in the residential,
commercial and industrial sectors, many of which also represent some of the least
costly abatement opportunities, providing a net financial return over time (p.62).

Many of the existing barriers to the uptake of energy efficiency abatement opportunities
are also relatively clear and able to be easily addressed (p.85).
Discussion:
Energy efficiency is a clear opportunity where the Government can demonstrate leadership
in addressing climate change.
Firstly, enhancing energy efficiency is a basic prerequisite to addressing the forecast
increase in electricity demand and reducing mainland electricity imports. Secondly, it will
directly assist action to increase the proportion of renewable energy generation in the State.
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Thirdly, with the ability to provide long-term investment returns to the State’s economy, the
early adoption and uptake of low cost energy efficiency measures will enhance the social
and economic progress and prosperity of the State. Finally, it will help alleviate the indirect
effects of future carbon price scenarios.
Market barriers do exist, however, in both the business and community sectors. Government
has a key role in ensuring these barriers are clearly identified and addressed. Wellresourced, well-designed State Government policies and awareness programs would
facilitate early adoption of energy efficiency measures, reduce emissions, reduce household
and business costs and facilitate transition to a lower carbon economy.
Consequently, efficiency standards and complementary measures should be adopted within
the framework of a state based energy efficiency strategy, including energy efficiency targets
and demonstration projects. Tasmania has a clear opportunity to turn its small market into an
advantage for attracting small-scale national demonstration projects and programs. In
addition, business energy efficiency programs need to be integrated into the State’s
Economic Development Strategy. Similarly, community based measures need to be
developed and implemented under the proposed Community Climate Action Strategy.
In establishing efficiency standards, the small market status of Tasmania also needs to be
recognised. As opposed to going it alone, Tasmania should look to leverage off established
national and international standards and adopting ‘best-practice’ efficiency levels within
those standards.
The State Government also has a clear role in raising awareness of, and gaining access to,
any available Federal Government funding mechanisms for business and community based
energy efficiency programs.
Council Recommendations:
The Tasmanian Climate Action Council recommends that the State Government:
4.1.6.
Develop a state based energy efficiency strategy including an energy
efficiency target for Tasmania.
4.1.7.
Assists both business and the broader community to access Federal
Government programs to improve energy efficiency in households and
businesses.
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4.1.8.
Identify energy efficiency opportunities within Tasmanian Government
managed premises, under the Framework to Reduce the Tasmanian
Government’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions, including mechanisms for
efficiency benchmarking, performance targets and reporting.
4.1.9.
Fund demonstration projects aimed at achieving energy efficiency
improvements in Housing Tasmania properties.
4.1.10.
Adopt ’best-practice’ energy efficiency standards within established
national and international energy efficiency standards
4.1.11.
Actively pursue funding available under national energy efficiency
programs to implement energy efficiency demonstration projects.
4.1.12.
Introduces building standards and programs that improve energy efficiency
in the business and private sector as an integral part of the State’s
Economic Development Strategy.
4.2. Manufacturing and Industrial Processes
Wedges Report findings:

The manufacturing sector accounts for 31% (2.7Mt CO2e) of Tasmania’s total
greenhouse gas emissions with most of these emissions arising from the State’s six
largest industrial facilities through direct fuel combustion and industrial processing.
(pp18-19)

Industrial processing accounts for 16% of emissions in Tasmania compared with only
5% for Australia. (p.15)

Significant short term opportunities exist to reduce emissions from direct fuel
combustion through industry uptake of gas or biomass co-generation (1.8 Mt CO2e).
(p.57)

In the industrial processing sector, while significant opportunities exist to reduce
emissions (estimated to be of the order of around 2.6 Mt CO2e by 2050), there is limited
potential for early take-up of abatement measures due to the need to develop new
technology solutions. (pp 68-69 & 90)
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Discussion:
The Council notes the Wedges Report’s findings that a relatively small number of large
industrial facilities in Tasmania account for a large proportion of the State’s total greenhouse
gas emissions. These emissions arise largely from direct fuel combustion and the industrial
processes involved which vary considerably across the State’s largest industrial facilities.
The fact that a large proportion of Tasmania’s emissions arise from the operations of a
relatively small number of large industrial facilities presents a significant challenge and a
unique opportunity for reducing Tasmania’s emissions. However, the successful
development of new low carbon technological solutions will be critical to realising these
emission reductions opportunities.
Given that failure to develop the needed technologies could compromise Tasmania’s ability
to reach its emissions reduction target, the Council considers that the Government’s
strategic involvement with this sector should be considered. It would seem appropriate for
the Tasmanian Government to examine opportunities to work closely with the individual
businesses involved to develop a long-term understanding of the emissions reduction
potential of individual facilities and to implement solutions.
Such a ‘partnering’ approach with the operators of individual large industrial facilities would
enable the Tasmanian Government to ensure that available emissions reduction
opportunities, as they emerge, are efficiently adopted and that any important barriers to their
introduction are minimised. Such an approach would also assist the Tasmanian
Government’s early identification of any key risks from delays or failure of expected
technological developments. Importantly, it could provide the basis for the development of
formalised emissions intensity agreements.
The Report also concludes that the most significant short-term opportunity to deliver
emissions reduction in large industrial operations relates to those facilities that undertake
direct coal combustion. These facilities offer significant opportunities to reduce emissions by
converting to gas or biomass cogeneration (or tri-generation) systems where possible.
The Council believes the Tasmanian Government should therefore investigate and remove
any barriers to cogeneration in key industrial facilities, including any infrastructure barriers.
Given the importance of these facilities to the State’s economic and employment base, it is
important that the Government takes a strategic role in ensuring that the current and future
energy security requirements of major industry are met in the context of their transition to
cogeneration. Any cooperative initiatives will need to ensure such needs are simultaneously
addressed alongside emission reduction objectives.
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Council Recommendations:
The Tasmanian Climate Action Council recommends that the State Government:
4.2.1.
Initiates a consultative dialogue to understand the processes, emissions
reduction opportunities, timelines, and any barriers to the development and
deployment of new technologies that reduce emissions intensity in each of
the State’s large industrial facilities.
4.2.2.
Develops individual emissions reduction ‘partnerships’ with the State’s
largest industrial emitters involving:
o
an investigation of industrial scale cogeneration (and tri-generation)
opportunities;
o
support mechanisms to incentivise fuel-switching at these facilities,
particularly large industrial coal users to lower emission direct
combustion alternatives where possible; and
o
an assessment of infrastructure support needs and fuel supply
requirements.
4.3. Transport
Wedges Report findings:

Transport is currently the third largest source of emissions in Tasmania (1.8 Mt CO2e in
2007). (p 15)

Transport activities account for 21% of emissions in Tasmania compared to 14% for
Australia. (p 15)

Around 85% of transport emissions come from private and commercial vehicle use on
roads. (p 31)

Abatement options in this sector could reduce emissions by 1.8 Mt CO2e by 2050,
depending on technology development, long-term planning and behavioural change.
(p 62)
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
Many transport abatement initiatives have low cost, assuming other co-benefits are
recognised, and have the potential of offering significant long-term abatement well
beyond 2050. (p 62)

The bulk of the savings would come from the use of biofuels, improvements in vehicle
efficiency, freight efficiency improvements, urban transport improvements and more
efficient driving habits. (p 99)
Discussion:
A challenge in achieving significant near-term reductions in transport emissions is the likely
lag time between the initial investment and eventual, measurable benefit of any action. In
addition, major transport abatement opportunities are highly dependent on continuing
development, commercialisation and adoption of new fuel and engine technologies, such as
new generation biofuels for freight vehicles and buses (44% of potential savings10).
Smaller, but better understood, abatement opportunities rely on shifting consumer behaviour
and attitudes, “behavioural change” outcomes, including increased use of public and
alternative transport, and the uptake of more efficient cars and driving habits.
While these “behavioural change” opportunities can be sought now, their longer-term
success demands greater attention to the long-term emissions implications of urban and
infrastructure planning.
There are other significant opportunities for government to act immediately, on several
fronts, to leverage emission reduction outcomes from a range of existing policy and planning
initiatives.
For example, while Tasmania may not be able to directly influence the pace of biofuel
technology development, the Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research (TIAR) and the
University of Tasmania have capabilities in agronomy, resource assessment and value-chain
mapping that could greatly assist the understanding of potential biofuel supply chains in
Tasmania, possibly in association with current food bowl and irrigation development projects,
and with long-term structural adjustment in the dairy and vegetable industries.
10
Wedges Report, page 63
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The future of the State’s freight transport system presents another important area of
opportunity. The recent re-establishment of a State-owned rail corporation provides an
opportunity for consideration of the appropriate role for rail in Tasmania’s transport system.
The Wedges Report finds a “low greenhouse benefit in shifting from road to rail”11, whilst
identifying significant abatement potential in road freight efficiency through improved load
factors. Maintaining the status quo leaves Tasmania with inefficiencies in both road and rail
systems, whilst reassigning the freight task between road and rail in different parts of the
system may enable greater focus on maximising economic performance and emissions
reductions in each mode.
Emission implications of longer-term transport and freight scenarios should also be
considered as part of the State-wide Infrastructure and Economic Development Strategies
currently being developed, in connection with the regional planning initiatives in the South,
North and North West.
This should include consideration of any proposed changes to port operations, maintenance
of unused rail infrastructure, and the capacity of power transmission infrastructure to support
future widespread use of electric passenger vehicles.
The planning reform process, provides an important opportunity to develop and apply
consistent provisions regarding urban settlement and public and alternative transport aimed
at achieving reduced reliance on private vehicle use in built up areas, while providing
attractive options for travel by bus, walking and cycleways.
A number of relatively low cost opportunities are immediately available to reduce transport
emissions. First, the State Government should continue to lead the transition of Tasmania’s
passenger vehicle fleet to greater fuel efficiency through its own purchasing policies. The
logical future expansion of this policy would provide for the adoption of emerging
technologies, such as electric and hybrid vehicles, to accelerate availability and support for
low emissions technology in the Tasmanian market.
Second, vehicle emissions can be reduced by influencing driver behaviour. Reduced
highway speed limits and eco-driving training offer practical ways of reducing emissions that
are within the immediate grasp of both regulators and individual citizens. The Wedges
11
Wedges Report, page 187
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Report notes that associated increases in travel times are offset by reduced fuel and
accident costs12.
Third, passenger transport emissions can also be reduced by providing alternatives to travel.
The Wedges Report suggests that road and air travel for meetings could be reduced by up
to 10%13 by creating better public and business access to video conferencing facilities. In
Tasmania, a network of such facilities could be established using existing libraries, Learning
and Information Network Centres (LINCs) and On Line Access Centres, taking advantage of
the early roll-out of national broadband in the State where available.
Council Recommendations:
The Tasmanian Climate Action Council recommends that the State Government:
4.3.1.
Develops a State strategy for biofuel production, addressing supply chain
and infrastructure, to reduce fossil fuel use in transport (as well as a
broader renewable energy source) and increase the State’s energy security.
4.3.2.
Improves the efficiency of Tasmania’s freight transport system including:
o
rationalising road and rail freight systems to focus investment on longterm efficiencies; and
o
working with the road transport industry to investigate efficiency gains
through improved logistics and load factor management.
4.3.3.
Reduces demand for passenger vehicle travel including:
o
developing practical and attractive alternative transport systems in builtup areas;
o
promoting community behaviour change including access to local
resources, car pooling, walk to school programs and support for
walking/cycling transport options;
o
establishing public access teleconference facilities to replace road and
air travel for meetings; and
12
Wedges Report, page 184
13
Wedges Report, page 194
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
o
4.3.4.
developing key performance indicators to measure policy impacts.
Improves fuel efficiency of vehicle transport including:
o
extending investment in fuel efficient government and corporate fleets;
o
investigating options to promote eco driver education (and associated
fuel savings) through workplace training, learner and in-school
programs; and
o
4.3.5.
undertaking a staged introduction of reduced highway speed limits.
Embeds transport emissions considerations in all long term planning
initiatives including:
o
providing support for urban design and town planning that reduces
demand for private vehicle use through provision of walkable cities and
attractive alternative transport options in built-up areas; and
o
ensuring that state-wide and regional economic development,
infrastructure and land use strategies support development of efficient
transport corridors and modes, including key emerging transport
technologies such as electric vehicle infrastructure.
4.4. Agriculture
Wedges Report findings:


The agriculture sector currently accounts for 25% of Tasmania’s emissions which is the
second largest source of the State’s emissions.

Livestock emissions dominate, accounting for 75% of agricultural emissions and 19% of
Tasmania’s total emissions.

Abatement opportunities in this sector are limited, highly uncertain and very dependent
on environmental and climatic conditions.

The major known abatement opportunity involves the sequestration of carbon by
converting agricultural land to forests – up to 20% of Tasmania’s arable land is
considered open to conversion to forest plantations.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
Discussion:
The dynamic nature and complexities of Tasmania’s farming sector complicates emissions
modelling in the sector. It is also important to note that international emissions reporting
methodologies applying to agriculture are likely to evolve significantly in coming decades.
For example, the inclusion of soil carbon in emissions reporting could significantly alter the
State’s agricultural emissions profile and the current potential emissions reduction value of
particular actions in the sector.
Reforestation of arable agricultural land provides the clearest short term abatement
opportunity in the sector. A significant reforestation exercise, however, may create
community conflict as productive agricultural land (a scarce resource in its own right) is
targeted for conversion to forest plantations. Clearly, a government policy framework that
adequately protects existing farming land whilst actively promoting environmentally
appropriate, farm-based forest plantings, is a priority.
Tasmania’s agricultural sector is likely to remain dominated by livestock production and
particularly by sheep and cattle farming, both of which have high emissions profiles.
That said, the promotion of more holistic, sustainable farming systems provides an
opportunity to foster a number of abatement opportunities including: optimal feed mix and
management; fertilizer usage; minimum tillage; grazing system management; biological
agriculture; organics; and landcare programmes. Combined, these have the potential to
deliver significant emission reductions as well as long-term productivity gains.
Future research and development may produce abatement opportunities for the livestock
sector in the medium to long term. Research is currently underway to investigate methods
such as selective livestock breeding and vaccination to reduce emissions associated with
enteric fermentation. Given its agricultural emissions profile, Tasmania must be an early
adopter of such technologies as they are proven to be commercially viable.
Although much of the research and development will likely be undertaken elsewhere, a
significant opportunity exists for the Tasmanian agricultural sector to become a leader in
innovation. Opportunities include biomass, the introduction of alternative fuel sources such
as biofuels (discussed in Section 4.3 on Transport) and the production and application of
alternative fertilizers such as seaweeds, sewage and compost solutions.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
Council Recommendations:
The Tasmanian Climate Action Council recommends that the State Government:
4.4.1.
Develops a policy framework for farm-based reforestation of agricultural
land, including:
o
promoting environmentally appropriate reforestation activities by farm
businesses.
4.4.2.
Supports the development of a sustainable farming system model, which
complements the reforestation policy, and focuses on the following shortterm outcomes:
o
encouraging farmers to adopt a holistic approach to sustainable farm
management which includes components such as minimum tillage,
optimised fertilizer application, on-farm energy efficiency, efficient
grazing systems, breeding programs, biological agriculture, organics
and landcare projects;
o
active involvement and leadership through established agribusiness
networks such as Natural Resource Management (NRM) bodies,
Landcare groups, Southern Farming systems, Grassland societies,
Breed societies and the Tasmanian Farmers and Graziers Association
(TFGA); and
o
active adaptation action, including through mentoring development of
farm strategies and business plans to mitigate climate impact risks.
4.4.3.
Support research and education on the on-farm carbon cycle, including the
carbon stored in soils and vegetation, which take into account the cool
temperate climate of Tasmania so as to underpin good climate policy for the
agricultural sector.
4.4.4.
Promote and support agribusiness innovation as a key enabler for
emissions reduction including via the State’s economic development
strategies, particularly with regard to the production and use of biofuels,
biomass and alternative fertilizers.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
4.5. Forestry
Report’s findings:


Forestry and land use change currently contribute only 1% of Tasmania’s total
emissions.

There is significant potential for forestry biomass (waste) as a renewable energy
resource.
Discussion:
Like agriculture, forestry remains a very difficult sector to model emissions. As is the case
with agriculture, internationally agreed forestry emissions accounting methodologies exclude
reporting on a range of emissions sources and sequestration opportunities.
Until more comprehensive carbon accounting for forestry, land use, land use change is
developed and adopted the setting of meaningful policy direction for this sector is expected
to remain problematic.
However, given Tasmania’s significant and diverse forest estate and its potential for
improved carbon sequestration, it is important that Tasmania proactively manages any
potential risks associated with the international accounting developments for the sector and
capitalises on any opportunities presented.
Further research to maximise opportunities for Tasmania should focus on:

improved understanding of the complete carbon cycle of various forestry systems
(regrowth, old growth and plantation);

emissions reduction opportunities associated with different rotation lengths;

the sequestration value of the State’s conserved and managed forests; and

the potential impact of any proposed use of forestry biomass for energy production.
The implication of such factors needs to be fully understood so that the forestry estate can
be managed in a sustainable and profitable manner that optimises climate change
outcomes.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
Council Recommendations:
The Tasmanian Climate Action Council recommends that the State Government:
4.5.1.
Commission the development of a complete and independent carbon cycle
assessment of Tasmania’s forestry estate (regrowth, old growth and
plantation).
4.5.2.
Develops policy based on the full carbon assessment of the forestry estate,
covering:
o
the potential use of forest biomass as a potential renewable energy
source;
o
emissions reduction, including opportunities associated with different
rotation lengths; and
o
managing the State’s conserved and managed forests to optimise their
sequestration value.
4.5.3.
Articulate the concept of a sustainable forestry estate to the wider
community, including the need for “no regrets actions” to ensure positive
effects on forestry and State emissions.
4.6. Waste management
Report’s findings:

The waste sector accounts for around 4% (0.4Mt CO2e) of Tasmania’s total greenhouse
gas emissions and waste emissions are expected to grow to around 0.9Mt CO2e by
2050. (p15 and 70)

Under a maximum abatement scenario, around 80% of emissions from the sector could
be abated.

Identified abatement options are relatively inexpensive, well understood and already
commercialised such as flaring and using captured methane for power generation.

New technologies that use waste organic material as an energy source for power
generation or process heat, or producing char material (stable carbon) as a by-product,
offer additional abatement possibilities. (p70 and 105)
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
Discussion:
Emission reduction opportunities in Tasmania’s waste sector are modest, but they are also
relatively cost effective and would provide important signalling and leadership benefits for
the community.
Significant practical opportunities exist for improvement in waste minimisation, management
and recycling in Tasmania and should be considered a short to medium term priority for the
Tasmanian Government, as part of a broader aim to approach best practice waste
management in the State.
In particular, opportunities exist to develop collaborative approaches to work with Federal,
State and Local Governments to assist businesses and consumers to minimise waste. This
would represent not only a ‘low cost’ emission reduction opportunity but also an important
opportunity to demonstrate the State’s ‘clean green’ brand.
Consistent with the Council’s recommended priority focus on renewable energy generation,
the Tasmanian Government should also pursue options to work with local governments to
facilitate the exploitation of waste to power opportunities at all large waste and waste water
facilities. The use of organic material as an energy source for power generation or process
heat, producing char material (stable carbon) as a by-product, should also be considered
over the medium term.
Recycling, and aluminium recycling in particular, offers low cost resource efficiency and
emission reduction gains. There is clearly a role for both the Tasmanian Government and
local governments to investigate and implement measures to improve recycling rates, while
recognising the need to tailor this to Tasmania’s relatively small population and the possible
need to export recycled material for reprocessing. Industrial composting infrastructure
opportunities should also be pursued, including supporting the Tasmanian food, tourism and
hospitality sector to adopt bio plastics in packaging along with re-use.
Improved public recycling facilities should be introduced as a community leadership measure
(Section 4.7 Community). Container deposit legislation and other community focused
advanced waste management strategies should also be introduced.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
Council Recommendations:
The Tasmanian Climate Action Council recommends that the State Government:
4.6.1.
Work with the Federal Government, other state/territory and local
governments to develop waste minimisation policies, standards and
timelines for waste minimisation, including packaging waste and a food
waste diversion program.
4.6.2.
Support lean manufacturing innovation and education programs to assist
Tasmanian businesses to minimise packaging and process waste.
4.6.3.
Audit the State’s waste facilities to identify opportunities for:
o
the introduction of waste to energy technology and associated waste
management infrastructure, especially in regional areas, in line with the
State’s commitment to renewable energy generation;
4.6.4.
o
local recycling of large scale, commercial waste streams; and
o
an integrated whole food supply system.
Support community behavioural change initiatives that lead to reductions in
overall waste and better educational outcomes;
4.6.5.
Assist local governments to undertake local education and action to
increase recycling rates, including through the provision of better public
recycling facilities.
4.6.6.
Introduce container deposit legislation.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
4.7. Community
Report’s findings:

Adoption of energy efficient appliances, machinery and services can provide low cost
reductions in electricity demand. (p.59)

Encouraging consumers to take up energy improvements is one of the most cost
effective measures for increasing energy efficiency. ( p103)

Almost 0.9Mt CO2e of abatement could be delivered by 2050 by improving energy
efficiency of refrigeration and water heating appliances and mandating higher star
ratings of buildings at a net benefit to the community. (p.66).

The Tasmanian Government could assist individuals in pursuing Federal Government
assistance and advocate for the expansion of these schemes or new schemes where
opportunities for efficient emission reductions are identified.
Discussion:
The household and community sector must be a priority for short-medium term action on
climate change and the Council believes such action should focus on energy efficiency and
transport.
The Wedges Report itself identified the importance of practical action to reduce barriers to
behavioural change through:

improvements in energy (Section 4.1) and transport efficiency (Section 4.3);

waste management, minimisation and recycling (Section 4.6);

leveraging existing community action and providing longevity and funding consistency for
community programs; and

educating the community about the co-benefits of effective climate change action such
as improved health, social and environmental benefits and reduced household costs.
The Council notes the Tasmanian Government has already developed and implemented a
number of important community climate change programs. An opportunity now exists to
consolidate these, and new community measures, into a clear and consistent Community
Climate Action Strategy.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
It is important to note that long-life purchases, such as homes, vehicles and large
appliances, have the capacity to ‘lock’ additional emissions intensity into the system, or
alternatively, provide an opportunity to advance the State’s transition towards a low carbon
economy. Consequently community focused climate change policies should be structured to
improve awareness and capture productivity, health, social and environmental benefits, in
addition to their important emission reduction outcomes.
Community based engagement and education is vital in informing and motivating people to
act and it needs to go well beyond simply providing households information. The Tasmanian
Government must take a leadership role in ensuring that the community understands the
importance and urgency of the climate change problem. It is also important that the
Government ensures that its progress toward emission reduction targets, and any future
interim emission targets, is afforded a high public profile. Unlocking the power of local ideas
and collaborative action, with the empowerment of individuals and communities should be at
the forefront of Tasmania’s action to meet its legislated emission reduction target.
The Tasmanian Government should also lead by example to improve the energy and water
efficiency of the Tasmanian housing stock over the next decade by:

providing audit and retrofit programs targeting low income households;

coordinating and optimising community access to and usage of existing Federal and
State energy and water efficiency programs;

developing energy and water performance standards for housing, covering both new
construction and existing stock, with such standards met prior to the sale or lease of
properties; and

leveraging energy efficiency programs and requirements to support the creation of new
green industries and jobs.
A significant opportunity exists in Tasmania for the Government to work with Government
Business Enterprises (GBEs) to provide improved services and information that support
community action on climate change. Examples include new utility service opportunities,
such as smart metering and smart grid technologies, as well as improved household utility
billing information that supports energy efficiency awareness and action.
Mandating energy efficiency standards and setting targets are priorities in encouraging the
widespread uptake of energy efficiency opportunities by Tasmanian communities.
Tasmanian standards should leverage established national and international standards - see
discussion in Section 4.1.3 - Electricity Consumption.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
Low cost opportunities also exist through community-focused behavioural change relating to:
reducing private vehicle usage and increasing public transport use; and promoting
collaboration around food and energy supplies.
The provision of public transport and transport infrastructure is a core State Government
responsibility and the Tasmanian Government should embed emissions reduction goals as a
key component of its investment in this sector. This should include action to redress the
current imbalance in public funding provided to road infrastructure relative to public transport
infrastructure and services.
Given the scientific consensus that global warming of 1 to 2°C is now considered
unavoidable, the Tasmanian Government needs to prepare the Tasmanian community for
more extreme weather events, whilst helping communities to adjust to the social, economic
and environmental impacts that will arise. The Tasmanian Government should begin
development of a state based adaptation strategy that is harmonised with national
adaptation efforts.
Council Recommendations:
The Tasmanian Climate Action Council recommends that the State Government:
4.7.1.
Develops a practical Community Climate Action Strategy, focussing on
energy, transport efficiency and waste, that encompasses:
o
support for community based engagement and education, including
direct support for climate action organisations;
o
coordination and optimisation of community access to and usage of
existing Federal and State energy and water efficiency programs,
including smart metering;
o
community-focused behavioural change initiatives including energy
efficiency incentives such as smart metering, food gardens, reducing
private vehicle use, increasing public transport use and waste
minimisation; and
o
the development of practical tools to support consumer uptake of
efficient products.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
4.7.2.
Facilitate the overhaul of the Tasmanian housing stock over the next decade
for water and energy efficiency, including:
o
audit and retrofit programs targeting low income households;
o
energy and water performance standards for both new construction and
existing housing stock to be met prior to the sale or lease of properties.
4.7.3.
Development of a state based adaptation strategy linked to national
adaptation initiatives that specifically addresses the needs of:
o
low income communities; and
o
those regions most exposed to rising sea levels, drought and industrial
restructuring.
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Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
5. Summary of Recommendations
The Council’s recommendations to the Tasmanian Government are comprehensive and cover a range of sectors and action areas for the State. A summary of Council’s
recommendations is provided below.
To assist the Government in prioritising its actions to reduce Tasmania’s greenhouse gas emissions, the Council’s recommendations are set out in the table below
according to their priority (high, medium or lower priority) and whether action is required now, in the short term (1-2 years) or in the longer term (1-5 years).
RECOMMENDATIONS
PRIORITY
MEDIUM
HIGH
Now
Short term
Long term
Short term
Long term
LOWER
Short term
Long term
OVERARCHING ISSUES
Government leadership and action
3.1.1. Implement a whole-of-government mechanism to ensure all Government
major policy, investment, development and infrastructure decisions
appropriately account for climate change and its impacts as well as the
State’s emission reduction target.
3.1.2. Develop and prosecute a leadership role across those areas of the
economy in which Tasmania has a significant comparative advantage
and where the most significant economic opportunities exist.
3.1.3. Ensure that any policy barriers to emissions reduction at the business
and community levels are identified and addressed.
3.1.4. Ensure that all climate action policies, including existing mitigation and
adaptation policies, have clear outcomes / targets and are benchmarked
against national and international best practice.
Page | 36
RECOMMENDATIONS
PRIORITY
MEDIUM
HIGH
Now
Short term
Long term
Short term
Long term
LOWER
Short term
Long term
3.1.5. Lead by example by ensuring that Tasmanian Government efforts to
reduce its own emissions are properly implemented, monitored and
reported.
3.1.6. Actively communicate the importance of climate change mitigation and
the importance of, and progress towards, the State’s emissions
reduction target.
Implications of the CPRS deferral
3.2.1. Advocate for an improved national emission reduction policy framework
incorporating the early implementation of a national CPRS, or effective
carbon price.
3.2.2 Commit to near term action based on the Wedges Report’s findings,
regardless of the CPRS deferral.
Avoiding emissions ‘lock in’
3.4.1. Take immediate action to establish processes to prevent ‘business as
usual’ investment decision-making that results in the ‘locking in’ of new
or additional emissions intensive infrastructure.
3.4.2. Review relevant legislation underpinning Tasmania’s planning system to
ensure developments and investments avoid the locking in of emissions
intensity consistent with the State’s transition to a lower carbon
economy.
3.4.3. Develop an implementation plan for the Tasmanian Infrastructure
Strategy that prioritises climate-ready transition for the State’s
infrastructure, particularly for energy and transport, ensuring all
Page | 37
RECOMMENDATIONS
PRIORITY
MEDIUM
HIGH
Now
Short term
Long term
Short term
Long term
LOWER
Short term
Long term
infrastructure stock is audited for climate vulnerability and readiness.
3.4.4. Amend development approval processes to require all new
developments in the State to be ‘best in class’ for energy efficiency and
emissions management.
3.4.5. Establish a central requirement for all new major industrial facilities to
deploy ‘best in class’ energy efficiency and emissions management.
Imported energy
3.5.1. Build business and community awareness of the State’s growing and
predominant reliance on imported coal-fired electricity and implications
for Tasmania.
3.5.2. Establish and pursue, alongside the legislated State emissions reduction
target, an emission reduction target associated with maximising the
State’s export of renewable electricity.
OPPORTUNITIES BY SECTOR
Energy
4.1.1. Establish a Renewable Energy State target linked to the attainment of
‘net electricity export’ status by 2020 and further increases in renewable
energy exports over the longer-term.
4.1.2. Immediately develop a comprehensive Renewable Energy Strategy,
incorporating:
o
direct incentives (such as gross feed-in tariffs, demonstration
grants, or payroll tax exemptions) for new renewable energy
Page | 38
RECOMMENDATIONS
PRIORITY
MEDIUM
HIGH
Now
Short term
Long term
Short term
Long term
LOWER
Short term
Long term
developments;
o
improvements to transmission infrastructure, including smartgrid technologies;
o
assistance for investors to buy-down project development
risks; and
o
priority planning and development assessment processes for
State significant, large-scale renewable energy projects.
4.1.3. Develop a Renewable Energy prospectus for Tasmania, outlining the
State’s renewable energy strategy and Tasmania’s capacity to provide
climate change solutions for the nation through renewable energy
exports and renewably powered industries.
4.1.4. Actively pursue any available funding under available Federal
Government renewable energy programs including:
o
Developing a business case for funding as part of the new $650
million Federal Government Renewable Energy Future Fund;
and
o
Targeting opportunities for Tasmania to secure demonstration
projects, particularly where they complement the State’s own
identified emissions reduction priorities and showcase
solutions to the rest of the nation.
4.1.5. Develop initiatives that directly assist Tasmanians and Tasmanian
businesses to access Federal Government climate action funding,
including through provision of information, awareness building and
support for the development of business cases.
4.1.6. Develop a state based energy efficiency strategy including an energy
efficiency target for Tasmania.
Page | 39
RECOMMENDATIONS
PRIORITY
MEDIUM
HIGH
Now
Short term
Long term
Short term
Long term
LOWER
Short term
Long term
4.1.7. Assist both business and the broader community to access Federal
Government programs to improve energy efficiency in households and
businesses.
4.1.8. Identify energy efficiency opportunities within Tasmanian Government
managed premises, under the Framework to Reduce the Tasmanian
Government’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions, including mechanisms for
efficiency benchmarking, performance targets and reporting.
4.1.9. Fund demonstration projects aimed at achieving energy efficiency
improvements in Housing Tasmania properties.
4.1.10. Adopt ’best-practice’ energy efficiency standards within established
national and international energy efficiency standards.
4.1.11 Actively pursue funding available under national energy efficiency
programs to implement energy efficiency demonstration projects.
4.1.12 Introduce building standards and programs that improve energy
efficiency in the business sector as an integral part of the State’s
Economic Development Strategy.
Manufacturing and Industrial Processes
4.2.1.
Initiate a consultative dialogue to understand the processes,
emissions reduction opportunities, timelines, and any barriers to
the development and deployment of new technologies that reduce
emissions intensity in each of the State’s large industrial facilities.
Page | 40
RECOMMENDATIONS
PRIORITY
MEDIUM
HIGH
Now
Short term
Long term
Short term
Long term
LOWER
Short term
Long term
4.2.2. Develop individual emissions reduction ‘partnerships’ with the State’s
largest industrial emitters involving:
o
an investigation of industrial scale cogeneration (and trigeneration) opportunities;
o
support mechanisms to incentivise fuel-switching at these
facilities, particularly large industrial coal users to lower
emission direct combustion alternatives where possible; and
o
an assessment of infrastructure support needs and fuel supply
requirements.
Transport
4.3.1. Develop a State strategy for biofuel production, addressing supply chain
and infrastructure, to reduce fossil fuel use in transport (as well as a
broader renewable energy source) and increase the State’s energy
security.
4.3.2. Improve the efficiency of Tasmania’s freight transport system including:
o
rationalising road and rail freight systems to focus investment
on long-term efficiencies; and
o
working with the road transport industry to investigate
efficiency gains through improved logistics and load factor
management.
Page | 41
RECOMMENDATIONS
PRIORITY
MEDIUM
HIGH
Now
Short term
Long term
Short term
Long term
LOWER
Short term
Long term
4.3.3. Reduce demand for passenger vehicle travel including:
o
developing practical and attractive alternative transport
systems in built-up areas;
o
promoting community behaviour change including access to
local resources, car pooling, walk to school programs and
support for walking/cycling transport options
o
establishing public access teleconference facilities to replace
road and air travel for meetings; and
o
developing key performance indicators to measure policy
impacts.
4.3.4. Improve fuel efficiency of vehicle transport including:
o
extending investment in fuel efficient government and
corporate fleets;
o
investigating options to promote eco driver education (and
associated fuel savings) through workplace training, learner
and in-school programs; and
o
undertaking a staged introduction of reduced highway speed
limits.
4.3.5. Embed transport emissions considerations in all long term planning
initiatives including:
o
providing support for urban design and town planning that
reduces demand for private vehicle use through provision of
walkable cities and attractive alternative transport options in
built-up areas; and
o
ensuring that State-wide and regional economic development,
infrastructure and land use strategies support development of
Page | 42
RECOMMENDATIONS
PRIORITY
MEDIUM
HIGH
Now
Short term
Long term
Short term
Long term
LOWER
Short term
Long term
efficient transport corridors and modes, including key emerging
transport technologies such as electric vehicle infrastructure.
Agriculture
4.4.1. Develop a policy framework for farm-based reforestation of agricultural
land, including:
o
promoting environmentally appropriate reforestation activities
by farm businesses.
4.4.2. Support the development of a sustainable farming system model, which
complements the reforestation policy, and focuses on the following
short-term outcomes:
o
encouraging farmers to adopt a holistic approach to
sustainable farm management which includes components
such as minimum tillage, optimised fertilizer application, onfarm energy efficiency, efficient grazing systems, breeding
programs, biological agriculture, organics and landcare
projects;
o
active involvement and leadership through established
agribusiness networks such as Natural Resource Management
(NRM) bodies, Landcare groups, Southern Farming systems,
Grassland societies, Breed societies and the Tasmanian
Farmers and Graziers Association (TFGA); and
o
active adaptation action, including through mentoring
development of farm strategies and business plans to mitigate
climate impact risks.
4.4.3 Support research and education on the on-farm carbon cycle, including
the carbon stored in soils and vegetation, which take into account the
Page | 43
RECOMMENDATIONS
PRIORITY
MEDIUM
HIGH
Now
Short term
Long term
Short term
Long term
LOWER
Short term
Long term
cool temperate climate of Tasmania so as to underpin good climate
policy for the agricultural sector.
4.4.4. Promote and support agribusiness innovation as a key enabler for
emissions reduction including via the State’s economic development
strategies, particularly with regard to the production and use of biofuels,
biomass and alternative fertilizers.
Forestry
4.5.1. Commission the development of a complete and independent carbon
cycle assessment of Tasmania’s forestry estate (regrowth, old growth
and plantation).
4.5.2. Develop policy based on the full carbon assessment of the forestry
estate, covering:
o
the potential use of forest biomass as a potential renewable
energy source;
o
emissions reduction, including opportunities associated with
different rotation lengths; and
o
managing the State’s conserved and managed forests to
optimise their sequestration value.
4.5.3. Articulate the concept of a sustainable forestry estate to the wider
community, including the need for “no regrets actions” to ensure
positive effects on forestry and State emissions.
Page | 44
RECOMMENDATIONS
PRIORITY
MEDIUM
HIGH
Now
Short term
Long term
Short term
Long term
LOWER
Short term
Long term
Waste management
4.6.1. Work with the Federal Government, other state/territory and local
governments to develop waste minimisation policy, standards and
timelines for waste minimisation, including packaging waste and a food
waste diversion program.
4.6.2. Support lean manufacturing innovation and education programs to
assist Tasmanian businesses to minimise packaging and process waste.
4.6.3. Audit the State’s waste facilities to identify opportunities for:
o
the introduction of waste to energy technology and associated
waste management infrastructure, especially in regional areas,
in line with the State’s commitment to renewable energy
generation;
o
local recycling of large scale, commercial waste streams; and
o
an integrated whole food supply system
4.6.4. Support community behavioural change initiatives that lead to
reductions in overall waste and better educational outcomes.
4.6.5. Assist local governments to undertake local education and action to
increase recycling rates, including through the provision of better public
recycling facilities.
4.6.6. Introduce container deposit legislation.
Page | 45
RECOMMENDATIONS
PRIORITY
MEDIUM
HIGH
Now
Short term
Long term
Short term
Long term
LOWER
Short term
Long term
Community
4.7.1. Develop a practical Community Climate Action Strategy focusing on
energy, transport efficiency and waste that encompasses:
o
support for community based engagement and education,
including consideration of direct support for climate action
organisations;
o
coordination and optimisation of community access to and
usage of existing Federal and State energy and water efficiency
programs, including smart metering;
o
community-focused behavioural change initiatives including
energy efficiency incentives such as smart metering, food
gardens, reducing private vehicle use, increasing public
transport use and waste minimisation;
o
the development of practical tools to support consumer uptake
of efficient products.
4.7.2. Facilitate the overhaul of the Tasmanian housing stock over the next
decade for water and energy efficiency, including:
o
audit and retrofit programs targeting low income households;
o
energy and water performance standards for both new
construction and existing housing stock to be met prior to the
sale or lease of properties.
4.7.3. Develop a state based adaptation strategy linked to national adaptation
initiatives that specifically addresses the needs of:
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RECOMMENDATIONS
o
low income communities; and
o
those regions most exposed to rising sea levels, drought and
industrial restructuring.
PRIORITY
MEDIUM
HIGH
Now
Short term
Long term
Short term
Long term
LOWER
Short term
Long term
Page | 47
Appendix
Members of the Tasmanian Climate Action Council:
Associate Professor Kate Crowley (Chair)
Dr Noel Purcell (Deputy Chair)
Dr John Church
Rhys Edwards
Roger Jaensch
Ben Kearney
Adam Kirkman
Nel Smit
James Walch
For further information on the Tasmanian Climate Action Council’s activities and advice
please visit the Council’s page on the Tasmanian Climate Change Office website:
www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council
This page includes links to the Council’s public Communiqués, formal representations and
2009 Annual Report.
To view the Tasmanian Government current climate change policy, please view the
Tasmanian Framework for Action on Climate Change at: www.climatechange.tas.gov.au
Page | 48
Tasmanian Climate Action Council | GPO Box 123 | HOBART TAS 7001 | www.climatechange.tas.gov.au/action_council