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Transcript
VOLCANIC PROCESSES SUMMARY TABLE
Geologic Setting
Hot Spots (and Mid-Ocean Ridges)
Subduction Zones
Cause of Melting
Decompression Melting causes partial melting of mantle
rock.
Water Fluxing causes partial melting of mantle rock
(produces mafic magma)
Melting of continental crust by hot mafic magma.
Magma/Lava
Composition
Mafic (basaltic). Consistent composition.
Intermediate is most common, but sometimes felsic and
occasionally mafic. The composition of the lava erupted is
variable primarily because the amounts of assimilation and
differentiation that occur to magma on its way to the surface
vary (see the volcanic processes handout).
Gas content of
magma/lava
Generally relatively low in dissolved gasses.
Generally relatively high in dissolved gas.
Viscosity of
magma/lava
Generally low viscosity and runny.
Generally relatively high viscosity; often only capable of
very slow flow.
Style of Volcanism
Lava flows, fountaining if there is enough dissolved gas.
Often very explosive, but can produce lava flows as well.
The combination of gas-rich very viscous magma/lava can
cause catastrophically explosive eruptions.
Types of Volcanoes
Formed
Shield volcanoes (not at mid-ocean ridges); cinder cones.
Note that basaltic volcanism can occur at locations other
than hot spots and mid-ocean ridges, and that shield
volcanoes can form wherever there is a lot of basaltic
volcanism.
Composite or Stratovolcano.
Example Volcanoes
Mauna Loa, Newberry Volcano
Cascade volcanoes in northwest U.S., including Mt. St.
Helens, Mt. Rainier, and Mt. Hood; other famous examples
include Mt. Pinatubo (Phillipines), Mt. Fuji (Japan), and Mt.
Vesuvius (Italy).