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Apendix 1
Volcanoes are awesome manifestations of
the fiery power contained deep within the
Earth. These formations are essentially vents
on the Earth's surface where molten rock,
debris, and gases from the planet's interior
are emitted. When thick magma and large
amounts of gas build up under the surface,
eruptions can be explosive, expelling lava,
rocks and ash into the air. Less gas and more
viscous magma usually mean a less dramatic
eruption, often causing streams of lava to
ooze from the vent.
The mountain-like mounds that we associate with volcanoes are what remain after the material spewed
during eruptions has collected and hardened around the vent. This can happen over a period of weeks or
many millions of years.
A large eruption can be extremely dangerous for people living near a volcano. Flows of searing lava, which
can reach 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit (1,250 degrees Celsius) or more, can be released, burning everything in
its path, including whole towns. Boulders of hardening lava can rain down on villages. Mud flows from
rapidly melting snow can strip mountains and valleys bare and bury towns. Ash and toxic gases can cause
lung damage and other problems, particularly for infants and the elderly. Scientists estimate that more than
260,000 people have died in the past 300 years from volcanic eruptions and their aftermath.
Volcanoes tend to exist along the edges between tectonic plates, massive rock slabs that make up Earth's
surface. About 90 percent of all volcanoes exist within the Ring of Fire along the edges of the Pacific Ocean.
About 1,900 volcanoes on Earth are considered active, meaning they show some level of activity and are
likely to explode again. Many other volcanoes are dormant, showing no current signs of exploding but likely
to become active at some point in the future. Others are considered extinct.
Francisco González Moreno
Francisca jurado Lorente