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Mr. Pace
At the completion of this unit students will be able to
 List signs of healthy and sick animals
 Categorize disease by their cause
 Identify common diseases and medical treatments for small
 Identify common diseases and medical treatments for large
 List preventative measures that should be taken to prevent
the spread of disease at home and in the vet clinic
 Identify animal parasites, their transmission, and treatment
 Recite the recommended vaccine schedules for animals
 Administer intramuscular and subcutaneous injections
 Prepare a client education pamphlet for a new pet owner
What do you mean, “He’s as healthy as a horse?”
 Disease
• Anything LESS than complete health
• Disturbance of normal functions of the body
 Clinical
Signs: (observable)
• Bright Eyes
• Socializing with other animals and people as
• Shiny Coat
• Healthy Weight
• Normal body functions (Urination, defecation, etc.)
 Clinical
Signs: (observable)
• Weight Loss
• Reduced Performance
• Vomiting
• Diarrhea
• Dull eyes/dropped ears
• Dull coat
 Physiological
• Organs/glands don’t function properly
 Diabetes
 Pancreas doesn’t produce insulin to regulate blood sugar
 Hyper/Hypothyroidism
 Thyroid doesn’t produce thyroxin to regulate metabolism
 Nutritional
• Caused by inadequate nutrition
 Rickets
 Caused by insufficient iron, causes bones to weaken
 Morphological
• Physical Defect
 Caused by accident or negligence
Cuts and Bruises
Broken Bones
 Pathogenic
• Virus, Bacteria, Protozoa, Fungus
• Most diseases in this category are contagious
 Parasitic
• Caused by parasites (internal or external)
 Genetic
• Inherited trait
• Passed from one generation to another
• Could be caused by genetic mutation
 Bordatella
(Kennel Cough)
• Causes: Virus
• Transmission: Airborne (similar to a cold in
• Symptoms: Coughing
• Treatment: Antibiotics help with symptoms, but
doesn’t kill the virus
 Parvovirus
• Cause: Virus affecting mostly puppies
• Transmission: Contact, especially with body
secretions of a sick puppy. Virus can live for
• Symptoms: Vomiting, bloody diarrhea
• Treatment: Antibiotics, IV Fluids to prevent
dehydration. Many puppies die
 Rabies
• Causes: Virus
• Transmission: Through the salvia of an infected
animal. (Salivary glands receive high concentrations of the virus)
• Symptoms: Foaming at mouth, aggression, and
• Treatment: None, Fatal
 Feline
Leukemia (FeLV)
• Causes: Virus
• Transmission: Sharing food/water bowls, bite
wounds, mutual grooming. (Virus is shed in high quantities through saliva)
• Symptoms: enlarged lymph nodes, poor coat,
fever, progressive overall decline of health due
to low immunity
• Treatment: None, fatal
 Feline
Infectious Peritonitis (FIP)
• Causes: Virus
• Transmission: Inhaling or ingesting the virus
(food/water bowls, contact, bite wounds, etc)
• Symptoms: Fluid filled abdomen
• Treatment: None, Fatal
 Feline
Infectious Peritonitis
 Feline
Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)
• Causes: Virus
• Transmission: Bite Wounds
• Symptoms: Immune deficiency and overall
• Treatment: none, fatal
*Known as the “AIDS” of cats
 Marek’s
• Causes: Virus
• Transmission: Direct, indirect contact between
birds, airborn
• Symptoms: weight loss, leg or wing paralyses
and death
• Treatment: No Treatment
 Wet Tail
• Causes: Virus (intestinal)
• Transmission: Direct contact (food bowls, cages,
feces, etc)
• Symptoms: Loss appetite, diarrhea, dehydration
• Treatment: Antibiotics
 Shell
Rot (Turtles)
• Cause: Fungal or Bacterial infection in shell
• Transmission: Cuts, scrapes, or cracks in shell,
discharge or foul shell
• Symptoms: Pitting, soft spots, fluid under shell,
discharge or foul smell
• Treatment: Swab infected area w/ diluted
Providone-iodine solution, scrape away infected
portions of shell w/ a blunt tool, swab again, treat
w/ antibiotics
 Shell
 Whirling
• Cause: Micro Parasite
• Transmission: Parasite
• Symptoms: Effects nerves and cartilage
damage, chasing after their tail
• Treatment: No Treatment
*Prevention; don’t transfer fish from one body of
water to another
 Pasteurella
• Cause: Bacteria
• Transmission: Direct or indirect contact
• Symptoms: Sneezing and Eye Discharge
• Treatment: None
 Equine
Infectious Anemia (EIA)
“Swamp Fever”
• Cause: Virus
• Transmission: Through blood, saliva, milk, and
body secretions
• Symptoms: High Fever, weakness, anemia
• Treatment: no treatments, or widely used
* “Coggins Test” is required for horses to cross
state lines
 Tetanus
• Cause: Bacteria
• Transmission: Contact with bacteria; most
commonly through a wound
• Symptoms: 1st: Colic and Stiffness 2nd: Spastic
activity in large muscles
• Treatment: Antibiotics
• and flushing of wound site
 West
Nile Virus
• Cause: Virus
• Transmission: Vector
• Symptoms: fever, weakness, aimless wandering,
paralysis of hind legs
• Treatment: No direct treatment for WNV treat
clinical signs; 40% Mortality
 Strangles
(Equine Distemper)
• Cause: Bacteria
• Transmission: Contact
• Symptoms: fever, nasal discharge, swollen lymph
• Treatment: Antibiotics
 Mad
Cow Disease
• Cause: Prion
• Transmission: A contaminated feed
• Symptoms: delirious, lethargy, confusion
• Treatment: No known treatment
 Coccidiosis
• Cause: Parasite
• Transmission: Contact
• Symptoms: diarrhea, bloody stool, dehydration,
• Treatment: anticoccidial drugs
 Mastisis
• Cause: Bacterial Infection
• Transmission: Contact
• Symptoms: Inflammation of the udder
• Treatment: Antibiotics
 Pink
• Cause: Bacteria
• Transmission: An eye irritation; contact
• Symptoms: red eyelids, frequent blinking,
• Treatment: An eye injection
 Coronavirus
• Cause: Virus
• Transmission: Contact
• Symptoms: diarrhea, dehydration and nasal
• Treatment: treat clinical signs
 Pneumonia
• Cause: viral and bacterial
• Transmission: contact
• Symptoms: fever, nasal and eye discharge, stiff
gait, soft coughing
• Treatment: treat clinical signs, antibiotics
 Blue Tongue
(Sore Muzzle)
• Cause: Virus
• Transmission: ?? Mosquitos??
• Symptoms: weakens sheep resistance to other
diseases, Secondary infections such as
pneumonia, lose appetite, sluggish, fever
• Treatment: No treatments, prevented by
 At
home or on the farm……
Cleanliness and Sanitation
Isolate new animals
Provide adequate nutrition and shelter
Be wise and educated in your breeding
 Sanitation
Solutions/Equipment to use at
• Lyme
• Hot Soap and Water
• Bleach, Lysol
 At
the Vet Clinic
• Isolate/quarantine very sick animals
• Sanitize instruments and exam tables
• Educate owners of contagious animals about
how to prevent/minimize spread of disease
 Sanitation
Equipment and Solutions to
use at the vet clinic
• Nolvasan
• Iodine
• Autoclave
• Cold Pack
 Parasite
• Any organism that lives on/in another organism
• Causes the host harm
• Parasites will die without a host
 Internal
• Live INSIDE of a host organism
 Round Worm
• Looks like spaghetti
• Found in the intestines
 Tape Worm
• Long and Flat in the intestines
• Break off in segments and look like rice in the
 Hook Worm
• Small, hooked shape
• Attach to the wall of the intestine
 Heart Worm
• Found in the circulatory system
• Eventually block heart valves
 External
• Live OUTSIDE of a host organism
 Fleas
• Cause external itching
• Not found in Utah!
 They don’t survive the winters here
• Can infect houses, live in couches, etc
 Flies
• Problem in the late summer and early fall
• Flies are attracted to animals
• Flies are annoying, but the biggest problem is
that they transmit disease
 Maggots
• Fly Larvae
 This parasite stats as an external parasite and then
moves inside!
 Mites
• Live on surface of skin
• Commonly found in the ear canal
 Ticks
• Attach to body and suck blood
• Can transmit Lyme Disease
 How
are parasites transmitted?
• Ingesting infected feces
• From mother to fetus
• Mosquitos (heartworm)
• Eating flesh of infected animal
 ie: cat eating mouse
 How
are parasites transmitted?
 Preventing
• Internal:
Parasites in Dogs:
 Best all around treatment = Heartworm Preventative because it also
kills other digestive system worms like roundworms, tapeworm,
• External:
 Fleas? (not in Utah)
 Ticks
 Mosquitos
 Preventing
Parasites in Cats:
• Internal:
 Give de-worming tablet
 Cats who eat mice are especially prone to worms
• External:
 Fleas?? (not in Utah)
 Mites
 Preventing Parasites in Horses:
• Internal:
 Give an oral de-wormer at least twice per year
• External:
 Flies
 Ticks
 Preventing
Parasites in Cattle:
• Internal:
 Roundworms
• External:
 Flies
 Lice
 Mites
 Preventing
Parasites in Sheep/Goats
• Internal:
 Roundworms
• External:
 Flies
 Mites
 Vaccine
• Substance that contains live or dead organisms
that is injected into an animal to make it immune
to a specific disease
types of vaccines
• Live Modified Virus
 Inject small amount of live disease causing bacteria
or virus
 Provides best immunity
• Killed Virus
 Inject small amount of the killed bacteria or virus
 Needs to be boosted periodically
Methods of Administering…….
• Injection: Usually subcutaneous
• Intranasal: Absorbed in nasal cavity
 Cat/Kitten Vaccines
 2 boosters, then yearly
 2 boosters, then yearly
 2 boosters, then yearly
• Rabies
 Given at 4 months, boosted at 1 year, then every 3
 Dog/Puppy Vaccines
 2-3 boosters 1 month apart
 CCV (Coronavirus is only for puppies)
 Yearly adult dog vaccine
D- Distemper
H- Hepatitis
B- Bordetella
P- Para influenza
P- Parvovirus
• Rabies
• Given at 4 months, boosted at 1 year, then every 3 years
 Horse Vaccines
• 5 Way - Tetanus toxoid, EEE, WEE, influenze, rhinopneumonitis
 2 boosters starting at 4-5 months old, then yearly
 West Nile Virus yearly
 Cattle Vaccines
• 5 Way or 4 Way
 2 boosters, then yearly
 Sheep
and Goat Vaccines
• ??
 2 boosters then yearly