Download PERIOD 3 TERMS ISLAM Muhammad Founder of Islam, considered

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Transcript
PERIOD 3 TERMS
ISLAM
Muhammad
Khadija
Caliphate
Abu Bakr
Mecca
Medina
Allah
Koran (Quran)
Hajj
Hadith
Five Pillars of Islam
Hijra
Sunni Muslim
Shiite (Shi’a) Muslim
Umayyads
Abbasids
Fatimids
Damascus
Baghdad
Sufism
Mosque
Hijab (veil)
Madrasa
Seljuk Turks
Ibn Battuta
Founder of Islam, considered a prophet
Wife of Muhammad, first convert to Islam
Islamic kingdom, ruled by a caliph
First caliph of Islam
Holy city of Islam, location of Kaba
City Muhammad fled to. Also known as Yathrib
God of Islam; same as Judaic and Christian god
Holy Book of Islam
Pilgrimage to Mecca, a pillar of Islam
The collection of the sayings of Muhammad
Faith, Prayer, Fasting, Charity, Pilgrimage
Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Medina
Any strong leader may rule Islam
Caliph must trace lineage to Muhammad
First Islamic Caliphate-capital in Damascus
Second Islamic Caliphate-capital in Baghdad
Shiite Dynasty based in Northern Africa
Capital of Umayyad caliphate
Capital of Abbasid caliphate
Mystic division of Islam focused on spirituality
Islamic place of worship
Required of Islamic women around any male
Islamic holy school
Later Islamic Kingdom; Held holy lands during crusades
Islamic traveler from West Africa; Wrote of his travels
CHINA
Sui
Tang
Song
Ming
Buddhism in Tang Dynasty
Confucian meritocracy
Tributary States
Kowtow
Silk Road Trade of the Song
Development of compass
Guangzhou
Technologies of the Song
Yuan Dynasty
Kublai Khan
Marco Polo
Scholar-Gentry
Forbidden City
Development of Paper
Footbinding
Empress Wu
Bill of Exchange
Junk
Li Bo
Prestor John
Short lived Chinese dynasty; work on Grand Canal
Noted ruler; Empress Wu-expanded territory and trade
Gunpowder, paper money, defeated by Mongol invasion
Pushed out Mongols, noted ruler: Hongwu; sponsored Zheng he
Buddhism becomes widespread during Tang dynasty
Starting in the Sui dynasty, based social status on merit
Money paid to Chinese emperor for protection/no invasion
Chinese custom of showing submisison by touching forehead to ground
Silk road trade peaked during the song dynasty
Developed during the Qin dynasty
Fertile region of eats China where the Qin dynasty began
Woodblock printing, gunpowder, paper money
Mongol dynasty led by Kublai Khan
Mongol ruler of China during the Yuan dynasty
Italian merchant who traveled to China during the Yuan dynasty
Academics of China, excelled in the Civil Service examinations
Palace of the emperor built by the Ming in Beijing
Began with the Han dynasty
Chinese tradition of binding a women’s foot to stunt growth
Female ruler of Tang dynasty; ruled for infant son(s)
First “travelers checks” used so merchants didn’t carry silver/gold
Chinese sailing ship
Tang dynasty romantic poet
King of legendary Christian kingdom in East Asia
THE AMERICAS
Olmec
Yucatan Peninsula
Olmec heads
Maya
Cahokia
Mississippian
Wari
Calpulli
Earliest civilization in the yucatan peninsula
Mesoamerican land; home to Olmec, Toltec, and Mayans
Distinctive stone head carvings of the Olmecs
Classical civilization of the yucantan peninsula; city-states
Central settlement of the Mississippian culture
Mound building native culture of the American mid-west
Early civilization based around modern day Brazil
Social division within the Aztec society
CENTRAL EUROPE
Genghis Khan
Kublai Khan
Hulegu
Pax Mongolica
Mongol Military Tactics
Ivan III
Novgorood
Kievan Rus
Rurik
Caravanserai
Golden Horde
Il-Khan Empire
St. Cyril
Cyrillic Alphabet
First Grand Khan of the Mongols
Grandson of Ghenghis Khan; ruled Yuan dynasty of China
Grandson of Ghengis Khan; ruled the Il-khanate in Central Asia
Time of relative peace under the four khanates
Used sieges and intimidation to force surrenders or tribute system
Prince of Moscow that defied the Golden Horde ; Ivan “the Great”
Original capital of the Rus people, Russian port city
Earliest Russian State; based in Kiev
Traditional founder of the Russian state (Kievan Rus)
System of rest stops caravans used for supplies and safety
One of the four Mongol khanates in northwestern asia; Batu
One of the four Mongol khanates in Central Asia; Hulegu
Eastern Orthodox missionary to Russia; alphabet
Written alphabet for the Slavic (Russian) language
JAPAN
Yamato Clan
Shintoism
Nara Period
Heian Period
Fujiwara Clan
Kamakura Shogunate
Shogun
Daimyo
Bushido
Samurai
Kamikaze
Ashikaga Shogunate
Early Clan to rise to power in Japan; capital: Asuka
Religion of Japan based in connecting today with the past
Followed Yamato period; high cultural output; capital: Nara
Followed Nara period; last classical period; capital: Kyoto
Emerged during Heian Period; power eclipsed that of emperor
Period following Heian with military dictator of Kamakura family
Military top leader of the Japanese feudal system
Territorial lords in Japanese feudal system
the “way of warrior” similar to chivalry
Warrior in Japanese feudalism similar to a knight
‘Divine Wind’ ; cyclone sunk mongol invasion fleet
Period following Kamakura; similar to Kamakura in power structure
SOUTHEAST ASIA
Khmer Empire
Angkor Wat
Dai Co Viet
Malacca
Srivijaya
Nguyen
Early kingdom of modern Camboadia
temple complex in Cambodia (hindu, then Buddhist) largest in world
Early Vietnamese kingdoms
Trading city on the Malay peninsula first utilized by Islam
Early native kingdom in Indonesia important in trade
Vietnamese ruling family during the Dai Co Viet period
AFRICA
Bantu Migrations
Ghana Kingdom
Mali Kingdom
Mansa Musa
Spread of Islam
Spread of Christianity
Timbuktu
Native tribes forced to relocate southeast due to state formation
Trading kingdom in west sub-sahara Africa; gold, salt, slaves
Trading kingdom founded by Sundiata in West Africa; mansa musa
Wealthy ruler of Mali, pilgrimage collapsed Cairo economy
Islam trade in North and East resulted in conversions
Ehtiopia adopts Christianity which spreads to south and west
Major trading city of the Mali Kingdom
FEUDAL EUROPE
Feudalism
Manorialism
Carolingian Dynasty
Vassals
Serfs
Lords
Vernacular
Franks
Gaul
Clovis
Charles Martel
Charlemagne
Battle of Tours (732)
Treaty of Verdun
Vikings (Varangians)
Normans
Magna Carta
Wat Tyler
Battle of Hastings (1066)
Crusades
Black Death
Fief
Hanseatic League
Guild System
100 Years War
Christian Schism of 1054
Three-Field System
Guttenberg
Thomas Aquinas
Scholasticism
Flying Buttress
Gothic Architecture
political system of the middle ages based on feudal contracts
economic system of the middle ages based on self-sufficient manors
Dynasty of Charlemagne in modern-day France
Owed lord loyalty, men, and tribute in a feudal contract
Peasants tied to the land despite who currently controls it
Give vassal use of land in return for loyalty
the common language of the people
Germanic tribe settled in modern France; become Carolingians
Term for modern France prior to arrival of the Franks
First Frankish king; converted to Christianity after winning battle
Wins battle of Tours; halts advance of Islam in Europe
Largest Frankish Kingdom; divides amongst three sons
Charles Martel (Frankish) stops advance of Islam in Europe
Divides land peacefully between Charlemagne’s sons
founders of Kievan Rus
Vikings settled in Normandy in exchange for not attacking Franks
British, 1215, King John signed; King under rule of law
1381 British peasant revolt leader
Norman conquest of Britain establishing modern England in 1066
Religious-Military quest to retake holy lands from Turks
Bubonic plague; killed 1/3 European population; transmitted by fleas
A piece of land awarded in a feudal contract
Trading Guild of Northern Germanic Kingdoms
Trade organizations that guaranteed workmanship and wages
Britain and France fight over feudal dominance
Break between roman-catholic and eastern orthodox Christianity
Medieval system of crop rotation leaving one field fallow (empty)
German inventor of moveable type in the western world
Theologian associated with Scholasticism; Summa Theologica
Educational movement seeking to integrate philosophy and Christianty
Supported roof through arches; allowed walls of glass; gothic
Dominated by stone work and flying buttresses; cathedrals