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Middle Ages: The Power of the Church and the Crusades I. Power of the Church A. Main Idea 1. Reform and changes swept through the _____________ Church, one of the most _________________ institutions in medieval __. B. Religion in the Middle Ages 1. _________ is head of Roman Catholic Church - early popes seen as ___________ leaders – during Middle Ages, they became powerful ___________ figures. 2. Christian beliefs brought people across Europe together in spiritual community of __________________. 3. __________ people’s main connection to church, had great influence - _________: peacemakers, prayed for safety of rulers, armies; Church officials: teachers, record keepers. 4. Around _______, influence of church increased dramatically great upwelling of __________, level of devotion, in Europe. C. Growth of Papal Power 1. 900s, 1000s, pope had ________ authority - considered head of church, but ___________ ___________ made most important religious decisions. 2. Few popes noted for religious devotion; most were __________ concerned with increasing own power. 3. _______, first of series of popes dedicated to reforming papacy came to power, ___________. 4. He believed that Europe’s ___________ had become corrupt, wanted reform; concerned with _____________, buying and selling of church offices by bishops. D. Power and Conflict 1. Bishops guilty of bad offenses ________________________, cast out of church - No greater punishment for Christians in Middle Ages - person excommunicated could not take part in Eucharist, could not be saved. 2. Leo became more active in governing church than other popes in past - reforms brought him into conflict with ______________, ______________ leaders. 3. 1054, Leo excommunicated bishop of _____________________, split Christian Church in two. E. Popes and Politics 1. Pope became head of huge network of _____________________ courts, heard cases on religious, moral matters. 2. Pope also ruled territories, like _________ States. F. Conflict over Bishops 1. Popes of the late 1000s were firmly resolved to change the way members of the clergy were __________. II. 2. Kings, other leaders played active role in choosing clergy 3. _________ popes did not think anyone but clergy should choose religious officials - issue became critical during Pope _________ pontificate. 4. ____________, Holy Roman emperor, chose new bishop for city of ____________ - 1) Gregory did not approve, removed bishop; 2) Henry disputed Gregory’s authority - most important outcome: Gregory ________________ to emperor. G. Network of Monasteries 1. Early 900s, group of __________ sought to return monasticism to strict roots - Est. new monastery at Cluny, France, to live by ________________ Rule. 2. _________ became most influential and ________ of network of monasteries across western Europe. The Crusades A. Main Idea 1. The Crusades, a series of attempts to gain Christian control of the __________________, had a profound economic, political, and social impact on the societies involved. B. Launching the Crusades 1. European Christians launched series of religious wars, Crusades, in Middle Ages - goal to take _________________, Holy Land, away from ___________. 2. Jerusalem in control of North African Muslims, _____________, late 1000s; ___________ Turkish Muslims took control of Persia, other lands, persecuted Christians visiting region. 3. Turks attacked _______________ Empire, destroyed army, 1071 - Emperor turned to Western Europe, Pope _________, for help. C. The Council of Clermont 1. Pope Urban II called church leaders to council in Clermont, ____ - described dangers faced by Byzantines; called on Christian warriors to put aside differences, fight against ________. 2. Effective call to arms - hundreds of ____________, __________ volunteered for Crusade. D. Fighting the Crusades 1. Crusaders left __________ in 1096 in First Crusade. In all, _____ Crusades set out between 1096 and 1291 to claim or protect the Holy Land. 2. Crusaders in two groups, peasants and knights – peasants fell to _________ Turkish army at Jerusalem. 3. Knights: better trained in warfare than peasants, but unprepared for hardship of journey – travelled _________ years. 4. Siege of ______________ victory for Crusaders, disaster for city - renamed four states in Holy Land, intended to be strongholds against future __________ conquests. E. Second Crusade 1. ___________ began retaking lands lost in ________ Crusade European leaders called for Second Crusade, launched in _____, Second Crusade a ___________, took no lands from Muslims. F. Third Crusade 1. New leader arose in ___________ world, _______ - _________, known to Europeans as ____________. 2. Overthrew Fatimids, took title of __________ - set out to take back Crusader states, ________________, drove European Christians out of Jerusalem. 3. Richard, Philip, Frederick set out from Europe on Third Crusade - Only King _________________________________ of ______ fought in Holy Land. 4. Richard, _____________ admired each other as military leaders, gentlemen - made proposals for peace - never took place because of ______________ differences. 5. Richard, Saladin fought fiercely for control of Holy Land - ____ could not take Jerusalem, had to return to England. G. Fourth and Later Crusades 1. Disorganization, lack of leadership made Fourth Crusade ______ - ________ other Crusades followed, none successful. H. Effects of the Crusades 1. Historic evidence of ________ between Muslims, Byzantines, Europeans prior to Crusades - Crusades enhanced existing trade increase in trade added to changing European _____________ during Middle Ages. 2. Crusades led to _________ of many knights, nobles - lands left vulnerable. Other ambitious nobles took control of unoccupied lands - nobles then had more _________, influence in Europe. 3. Some Europeans respected other cultures, others _____________ - many viewed non-Christians as enemies, persecuted ________. 4. Holy Land Jews saw Crusaders as cruel invaders - relations strained for centuries.