Download Church and Crusade Notes for kids

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Albigensian Crusade wikipedia, lookup

Church of the Holy Sepulchre wikipedia, lookup

History of Jerusalem during the Kingdom of Jerusalem wikipedia, lookup

Fourth Crusade wikipedia, lookup

Second Crusade wikipedia, lookup

Siege of Acre (1291) wikipedia, lookup

First Crusade wikipedia, lookup

Northern Crusades wikipedia, lookup

Barons' Crusade wikipedia, lookup

Middle Ages: The Power of the Church
and the Crusades
Power of the Church
A. Main Idea
1. Reform and changes swept through the _____________ Church,
one of the most _________________ institutions in medieval __.
B. Religion in the Middle Ages
1. _________ is head of Roman Catholic Church - early popes seen
as ___________ leaders – during Middle Ages, they became
powerful ___________ figures.
2. Christian beliefs brought people across Europe together in
spiritual community of __________________.
3. __________ people’s main connection to church, had great
influence - _________: peacemakers, prayed for safety of rulers,
armies; Church officials: teachers, record keepers.
4. Around _______, influence of church increased dramatically great upwelling of __________, level of devotion, in Europe.
C. Growth of Papal Power
1. 900s, 1000s, pope had ________ authority - considered head of
church, but ___________ ___________ made most important
religious decisions.
2. Few popes noted for religious devotion; most were __________
concerned with increasing own power.
3. _______, first of series of popes dedicated to reforming papacy
came to power, ___________.
4. He believed that Europe’s ___________ had become corrupt,
wanted reform; concerned with _____________, buying and
selling of church offices by bishops.
D. Power and Conflict
1. Bishops guilty of bad offenses ________________________,
cast out of church - No greater punishment for Christians in
Middle Ages - person excommunicated could not take part in
Eucharist, could not be saved.
2. Leo became more active in governing church than other popes in
past - reforms brought him into conflict with ______________,
______________ leaders.
3. 1054, Leo excommunicated bishop of _____________________,
split Christian Church in two.
E. Popes and Politics
1. Pope became head of huge network of _____________________
courts, heard cases on religious, moral matters.
2. Pope also ruled territories, like _________ States.
F. Conflict over Bishops
1. Popes of the late 1000s were firmly resolved to change the way
members of the clergy were __________.
2. Kings, other leaders played active role in choosing clergy
3. _________ popes did not think anyone but clergy should choose
religious officials - issue became critical during Pope _________
4. ____________, Holy Roman emperor, chose new bishop for city
of ____________ - 1) Gregory did not approve, removed bishop;
2) Henry disputed Gregory’s authority - most important
outcome: Gregory ________________ to emperor.
G. Network of Monasteries
1. Early 900s, group of __________ sought to return monasticism
to strict roots - Est. new monastery at Cluny, France, to live by
________________ Rule.
2. _________ became most influential and ________ of network of
monasteries across western Europe.
The Crusades
A. Main Idea
1. The Crusades, a series of attempts to gain Christian control of the
__________________, had a profound economic, political, and
social impact on the societies involved.
B. Launching the Crusades
1. European Christians launched series of religious wars, Crusades,
in Middle Ages - goal to take _________________, Holy Land,
away from ___________.
2. Jerusalem in control of North African Muslims, _____________,
late 1000s; ___________ Turkish Muslims took control of
Persia, other lands, persecuted Christians visiting region.
3. Turks attacked _______________ Empire, destroyed army, 1071
- Emperor turned to Western Europe, Pope _________, for help.
C. The Council of Clermont
1. Pope Urban II called church leaders to council in Clermont, ____
- described dangers faced by Byzantines; called on Christian
warriors to put aside differences, fight against ________.
2. Effective call to arms - hundreds of ____________, __________
volunteered for Crusade.
D. Fighting the Crusades
1. Crusaders left __________ in 1096 in First Crusade. In all, _____
Crusades set out between 1096 and 1291 to claim or protect the
Holy Land.
2. Crusaders in two groups, peasants and knights – peasants fell to
_________ Turkish army at Jerusalem.
3. Knights: better trained in warfare than peasants, but unprepared
for hardship of journey – travelled _________ years.
4. Siege of ______________ victory for Crusaders, disaster for city
- renamed four states in Holy Land, intended to be strongholds
against future __________ conquests.
E. Second Crusade
1. ___________ began retaking lands lost in ________ Crusade European leaders called for Second Crusade, launched in _____,
Second Crusade a ___________, took no lands from Muslims.
F. Third Crusade
1. New leader arose in ___________ world, _______ - _________,
known to Europeans as ____________.
2. Overthrew Fatimids, took title of __________ - set out to take
back Crusader states, ________________, drove European
Christians out of Jerusalem.
3. Richard, Philip, Frederick set out from Europe on Third Crusade
- Only King _________________________________ of ______
fought in Holy Land.
4. Richard, _____________ admired each other as military leaders,
gentlemen - made proposals for peace - never took place because
of ______________ differences.
5. Richard, Saladin fought fiercely for control of Holy Land - ____
could not take Jerusalem, had to return to England.
G. Fourth and Later Crusades
1. Disorganization, lack of leadership made Fourth Crusade ______
- ________ other Crusades followed, none successful.
H. Effects of the Crusades
1. Historic evidence of ________ between Muslims, Byzantines,
Europeans prior to Crusades - Crusades enhanced existing trade increase in trade added to changing European _____________
during Middle Ages.
2. Crusades led to _________ of many knights, nobles - lands left
vulnerable. Other ambitious nobles took control of unoccupied
lands - nobles then had more _________, influence in Europe.
3. Some Europeans respected other cultures, others _____________
- many viewed non-Christians as enemies, persecuted ________.
4. Holy Land Jews saw Crusaders as cruel invaders - relations
strained for centuries.