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Transcript
Middle Ages: The Power of the Church
and the Crusades
I.
Power of the Church
A. Main Idea
1. Reform and changes swept through the _____________ Church,
one of the most _________________ institutions in medieval __.
B. Religion in the Middle Ages
1. _________ is head of Roman Catholic Church - early popes seen
as ___________ leaders – during Middle Ages, they became
powerful ___________ figures.
2. Christian beliefs brought people across Europe together in
spiritual community of __________________.
3. __________ people’s main connection to church, had great
influence - _________: peacemakers, prayed for safety of rulers,
armies; Church officials: teachers, record keepers.
4. Around _______, influence of church increased dramatically great upwelling of __________, level of devotion, in Europe.
C. Growth of Papal Power
1. 900s, 1000s, pope had ________ authority - considered head of
church, but ___________ ___________ made most important
religious decisions.
2. Few popes noted for religious devotion; most were __________
concerned with increasing own power.
3. _______, first of series of popes dedicated to reforming papacy
came to power, ___________.
4. He believed that Europe’s ___________ had become corrupt,
wanted reform; concerned with _____________, buying and
selling of church offices by bishops.
D. Power and Conflict
1. Bishops guilty of bad offenses ________________________,
cast out of church - No greater punishment for Christians in
Middle Ages - person excommunicated could not take part in
Eucharist, could not be saved.
2. Leo became more active in governing church than other popes in
past - reforms brought him into conflict with ______________,
______________ leaders.
3. 1054, Leo excommunicated bishop of _____________________,
split Christian Church in two.
E. Popes and Politics
1. Pope became head of huge network of _____________________
courts, heard cases on religious, moral matters.
2. Pope also ruled territories, like _________ States.
F. Conflict over Bishops
1. Popes of the late 1000s were firmly resolved to change the way
members of the clergy were __________.
II.
2. Kings, other leaders played active role in choosing clergy
3. _________ popes did not think anyone but clergy should choose
religious officials - issue became critical during Pope _________
pontificate.
4. ____________, Holy Roman emperor, chose new bishop for city
of ____________ - 1) Gregory did not approve, removed bishop;
2) Henry disputed Gregory’s authority - most important
outcome: Gregory ________________ to emperor.
G. Network of Monasteries
1. Early 900s, group of __________ sought to return monasticism
to strict roots - Est. new monastery at Cluny, France, to live by
________________ Rule.
2. _________ became most influential and ________ of network of
monasteries across western Europe.
The Crusades
A. Main Idea
1. The Crusades, a series of attempts to gain Christian control of the
__________________, had a profound economic, political, and
social impact on the societies involved.
B. Launching the Crusades
1. European Christians launched series of religious wars, Crusades,
in Middle Ages - goal to take _________________, Holy Land,
away from ___________.
2. Jerusalem in control of North African Muslims, _____________,
late 1000s; ___________ Turkish Muslims took control of
Persia, other lands, persecuted Christians visiting region.
3. Turks attacked _______________ Empire, destroyed army, 1071
- Emperor turned to Western Europe, Pope _________, for help.
C. The Council of Clermont
1. Pope Urban II called church leaders to council in Clermont, ____
- described dangers faced by Byzantines; called on Christian
warriors to put aside differences, fight against ________.
2. Effective call to arms - hundreds of ____________, __________
volunteered for Crusade.
D. Fighting the Crusades
1. Crusaders left __________ in 1096 in First Crusade. In all, _____
Crusades set out between 1096 and 1291 to claim or protect the
Holy Land.
2. Crusaders in two groups, peasants and knights – peasants fell to
_________ Turkish army at Jerusalem.
3. Knights: better trained in warfare than peasants, but unprepared
for hardship of journey – travelled _________ years.
4. Siege of ______________ victory for Crusaders, disaster for city
- renamed four states in Holy Land, intended to be strongholds
against future __________ conquests.
E. Second Crusade
1. ___________ began retaking lands lost in ________ Crusade European leaders called for Second Crusade, launched in _____,
Second Crusade a ___________, took no lands from Muslims.
F. Third Crusade
1. New leader arose in ___________ world, _______ - _________,
known to Europeans as ____________.
2. Overthrew Fatimids, took title of __________ - set out to take
back Crusader states, ________________, drove European
Christians out of Jerusalem.
3. Richard, Philip, Frederick set out from Europe on Third Crusade
- Only King _________________________________ of ______
fought in Holy Land.
4. Richard, _____________ admired each other as military leaders,
gentlemen - made proposals for peace - never took place because
of ______________ differences.
5. Richard, Saladin fought fiercely for control of Holy Land - ____
could not take Jerusalem, had to return to England.
G. Fourth and Later Crusades
1. Disorganization, lack of leadership made Fourth Crusade ______
- ________ other Crusades followed, none successful.
H. Effects of the Crusades
1. Historic evidence of ________ between Muslims, Byzantines,
Europeans prior to Crusades - Crusades enhanced existing trade increase in trade added to changing European _____________
during Middle Ages.
2. Crusades led to _________ of many knights, nobles - lands left
vulnerable. Other ambitious nobles took control of unoccupied
lands - nobles then had more _________, influence in Europe.
3. Some Europeans respected other cultures, others _____________
- many viewed non-Christians as enemies, persecuted ________.
4. Holy Land Jews saw Crusaders as cruel invaders - relations
strained for centuries.