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Friday, 2/3/2017
Aim: How did the Pope justify war?
Most people (serfs, peasants, knights) followed the Pope because they want s​ alvation​ (to go to heaven)
Reasons to fight:
1) Immediate forgiveness of sins to all who fought
2) Save Christianity
3) Increase the power of the Pope in Europe
4) Travel and excitement (get off the manor!)
5) Serfs could be freed
6) Merchants want to control trade routes that Muslims controlled
1. Explain the development of the “holy war.”
- Power struggle between religious leaders and political leaders
2. What is the purpose of a Crusade?
To gain control of the Holy Land, Palestine/ Israel/ Jerusalem
Goals of the Crusades:
a) The Pope wanted to reclaim ​Palestine/ Israel/ Jerusalem ​ and reunite Christendom.
b) Kings and the Church saw the Crusades as an opportunity to get rid of quarrelsome knights who fought each other and
threatened the peace of the kingdoms, as well as Church property.
c) Younger sons participated in the Crusades to find land, a position in society, or an adventure because their older
brothers would inherit their father’s property leaving them with nothing.
d) Merchants profited by making cash loans to finance the journey and leased their ships to transport armies with the
hope of winning control of key trade routes to India, Southeast Asia, and China from Muslim traders.
​What Happened?
Ill-prepared with little knowledge of geography,
climate, or culture of the Holy Land
Goal was to capture Jerusalem
Muslim Turkish forces recapture Jerusalem
Goal – to recapture Jerusalem
The Crusading Spirit Dwindles:
3. After the Third Crusade the crusading spirit began to dwindle. Why?
4 more crusades were also unsuccessful -- Christians could not reclaim lands
Religious spirit faded and personal gain grew
People looked outside of the church and manor for answers and protection
Christians won a narrow strip
of land
Christians go home defeated
Compromise -- Jerusalem
remained under Muslim
control, but unarmed Christian
pilgrims could freely visit the
city’s holy places