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Account for changes in roman land and naval warfare
Hannibal’s surprise tactics destruction of the countryside
Fabian tactics war of attrition cause conventional failing. scipio’s surprise tactics, ambush of new
carthage and battle of the great plains stole the Numidia cavalry and the gkadius, spanish
 During the Punic wars Rome allowed a wider range of men into the military: slaves;
prisoners; younger men; older men.
 The Roman army was organised into divisions:
 Hastati: front line in the attack; young men well armed.
 Principes: more experienced soldiers in the second line of attack.
 Triarii: veterans, were used as reserves and as the last resort. Had great experience.
 Changed FP
 Goes on his success not annually
 Recruitment
 Younger military people
 During the First Punic War Rome became a naval power.
 Because losing battles, romans had to changeThe corvus allowed Rome to use her
legionnaires at sea (the first ‘Marines’).
 Relied on the Greeks, cause no navy
 Found the Carthaginian ships
Asses the role of fabius and scipios
Good learnt form Hannibal’s tactics at trasie, Cannae. Inturmtnealt in the defeat of carthage in eh
battle of Zama, managed to reignite romes prospects of victory crippled Spain, carhtages main base
of operations in Europe changes to the army gladiuss topped Hasdrubal reinforcing hannoibalsipio
Fabius: instrumental in fending off Hannibal’s attack. Inintead the war of attrition and Fabien tactics
to delay and slow down Hannibal, roman recuperation allowed scipio to actually go off and fight
Effective guerrilla warfare good, scorched earth policy
Evaluate the consequences of the Punic wars in this period
Economics/ Agrarian reform, rise of the lata funida, movement of people into the cities, sea trade,
now extensive
Political: rise of role of the dictator, senatorial reform, laxed age restrictions on becoming consul
Military: Greek phalanxe tactics, removal of double consular command of the army, to singular as
with scipio, new tactics
FP changed the way Rome dealt with its subject states i.e. the destruction of carthage
To what extent did Rome adoption of naval policy influence the course and outcomes of hte punic
Not sure at all, mayhap the first Punic war only? Maby naval domaince allowed scio to invade new
carthage and carthage itself?
Asses the role and contribution of fabius and Cato the Elder to this period?
Fabius: Fabien tactics war of attrition, don’t commit troops slow and delay Hannibal, Fabien tactics
also contributed strongly to the destruction of the countryside
Cato the elder:
the destruction of carthage. Opposed to Greek cultural influence on Roman life.
Cato had a reputation for honesty and his hostility to non-Roman influences.
Cato had been Scipio’s quaestor in Sicily.
Cato had an unfavourable attitude towards Scipio.
Cato perceived Scipio as too lenient to his troops, and too heavily influenced by Greek
Cato led a campaign in the Senate to downplay the achievements of Roman generals and
support the authority of the Senate and Roman politics.
He denied the triumphs of some of the Roman generals.
Cato became known for his hatred of Scipio.
He poisoned Scipio’s later life through trials and accusations.
Evaluate causes and course of the first Punic war
Sicily and the mamertines, Rome and carhtage etc
Messana is invaded and occupied by the Mamertini, who were mercenaries once employed
by Syracuse.
• The Syracusans, under their leader Hiero try to drive out the Mamertines.
• The Mamertines appeal to both Carthage and Rome for help
• A Carthaginian fleet receives the call first and lands a garrison at Messana
• The Roman senate meet and decide to follow their foreign policy and intervene even
though: The Mamertini were mercenaries; This action could lead to war with Carthage; If the
Carthaginians had control of Messana they would have control of the straights of Messana,
the route between Sicily and Italy
• When the Romans arrive the Mamertini side with them and this pushes the Carthaginians
• When Carthage hears of this they decide to recover Messana and so they send
• Under Hiero the Syracusans form an alliance with Carthage and attack Messana
• Rome sends more troops and defeats the Carthaginian garrison and Hiero
• This leaves Rome in control of Messana but at war with Carthage and Syracuse
Isolationist to expansionist
Imposed a treayt of Versailles and led to second punic war
Slaves increase lata fundia