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Transcript
HONORS CHAPTER 9 STUDY GUIDE
7th Grade Honors World History
VOCABULARY
Cavalry – a unit of soldiers who ride horses. The
Persian empire was known for their use of
cavalry, helping to make them so victorious in
battle
 Hellenistic – Greek-like - when a cultural idea is
heavily influenced by Greek ideas (Example –
cities of Alexandria created by Alexander.)
 Alliance – agreement to work together – as in the
Persian Wars

VOCABULARY
Phalanx – A square fighting formation –
commonly used by Alexander & Sparta
 Helots – Slaves in Sparta – made up majority of
population & heavily relied upon
 Parthenon – Great temple in Athens dedicated to
the goddess Athena. Commissioned by Pericles
after the Persian Wars.

PEOPLE TO KNOW
Cyrus the Great – Rebelled against the Medes to
create the Persian Empire. Known for letting
others keep their customs to help prevent
rebellions
 Darius I – Leader of the Persians when Greek
mainland city-states sent help to the Ionian citystates. Leader during the Battle of Marathon

PEOPLE TO KNOW
Xerxes I – the son of Darius. Was the leader of the
Persian Wars during the battles of Thermopylae,
Salamis & Plataea. Set up his golden throne to watch
the Battle of Salamis – which he lost, forcing him to
retreat to Persia
 Alexander the Great – Macedonian King – came to
power after his father was murdered. Helped to create
the largest empire in the world at that point. Never lost
a battle. Died at age 32 from malaria.
 Philip of Macedonia – Father of Alexander the Great.
Conquered the Greek city-states.

BATTLES OF THE PERSIAN WARS
 Battle






of Marathon –
490 BCE
Cause - Persians want revenge for citystates helping the rebelling Ionian
Greeks.
Athens asks Sparta for help – they said
no due to a religious festival
Athens out numbered 2 to 1
Due to better weapons & plans – Athens
wins!
Effect – Greeks feel pride & Persians will
want revenge
BATTLES OF THE PERSIAN WARS
 Battle






of Thermopylae –
Cause - Persians are seeking revenge for
Battle of Marathon
Led by Xerxes – brings at least 250,000 men
This is led by the Spartans – hold them off at
the narrow pass – until a traitor tells them
away around the mountains
Spartans fight to their death
Persians win
Effect – Spartans march to Athens & burn it
down & Greeks are motivated to fight back
BATTLES OF THE PERSIAN WARS
 Battle
of Salamis –
 Athenians had earlier built up their Navy
 Athenian Themistocles wants to fight in
the narrow straights
 Tricks Xerxes into battle
 Xerxes sets up gold throne to watch
 Little Athenian ships destroy the large
Persian ships because the large ships
can’t maneuver
 Win for Greece!
 Effect - Xerxes must return to Persia
BATTLES OF THE PERSIAN WARS

Battle of Plataea
Fought by a united Greek front and left over Persians
 Greece Wins!
 Effects

This ends the Persian Wars
 Defeat humiliating for Persians, but not a major loss
 Greeks save their homeland!

SHORT ANSWER
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The Medes
He is upset because the mainland Greeks helped out
the revolting Ionian Greeks.
Darius and Xerxes were both Persian leaders that
fought against the Greek city-states.
Age 60
Spartan life revolved around the military. Everything
that was done, was done for the good of the “state.”
Focus was on obedience and structure.
1.
2.
3.
SHORT ANSWER
Spartan life revolved around the military. Everything
that was done, was done for the good of the “state.”
Focus was on obedience and structure. Women had
more freedom b/c men were away at war. Boys left at
age 7 to receive military training.
In Athens, more focus was put on intellectual study.
Boys did have some military training, but more focus
was put on reading, writing, speaking & the arts. Girls
received little/no education and women had very little
rights.
Live in Athens or Sparta? You explain!
SHORT ANSWER
1.
2.
3.
4.
He was welcomed (and didn’t fight) in Egypt
Alexander’s troops refused to go on and fight –
forcing Alexander to turn around and head home
He died of malaria – a disease commonly from a
mosquito
After Alexander died he left his empire to “the
strongest”
It was split between 3 top generals
1.
1.
2.
3.
5.
6.
King of Macedonia/Greece
King of Syria
King of Egypt – Ptolemy
So many of Greek achievements are important
because they are so long lasting and influence our
art, architecture, philosophy, and government.
The Peloponnesian War – fought mainly between
Sparta & Athens weakened the city-states and left
them open for invasion from the Macedonians
A SONG TO WRAP IT ALL UP…. 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0F5qlu3nSDY