The Persian Wars: A Defining Moment in Greek History What is the opposite of Greek? What does it take to make the Greeks unite against a common enemy? Tonight’s Class The Persian Wars, Part I Movie: Homer’s Odyssey Persian Wars, Part II Key Questions for Today’s Lecture Who are the Persians? What are the causes of war? What key events occur during the war? Who wins the war and what are the consequences? Where Is Persia? Who Are The Persians? Absolute Rule of Kings Poverty vs. Decadence Excellence vs. Money The Causes of War Persians invaded Greece 490 BC (Marathon) 480-479 BC Battle of Marathon- 490 BCE Countless Persians vs. 10,000 Athenians “The magnificent grove of Marathon can confirm his bravery – as well as the long-haired Persian – who remembers it well.” Epitaph of Aeschylus Where were the Spartans? The Consequences of War History changes as a result of this battle Athenians = great political confidence Athenian wealth, greatness + power reflected in literature + building projects Athens as a Naval Power 482 BCE Silver Mines Aristides’s Plan Themistocles’s resolve The Madness of Xerxes Bridge over the Hellespont 40,000 hoplites + 366 ships 200,000 + 1000 ships Ships destroyed Thermopylae – 480 BCE Trap the army, destroy the fleet 300 men, 2 days, one fight to the death “Go tell them in Sparta, stranger, that we lie here obedient to their orders.” Simonides Leonidas - Hero Of the Battle If Fox News Had Been There! Salamis – 480 BCE Themistocles’s Brilliant Plan Greek Fleet vs. Persian Fleet Persia loses the battle 479 Battle of Plataea Spartans win But Athens still has naval superiority Greeks win war, but lose internal unity Sparta vs. Athens Sparta won the deciding battle but . . . Athens had the navy 478 - Delian League One vote each = democratic alliance Why Is This A Defining Moment in Greek History? Athens - cultural center of the Greek World . . . with the common enemy vanquished, Greeks will fight amongst themselves. Coming Next Week . . . ATHENIAN LEADERSHIP WOULD THE ATHENIANS HAVE ELECTED ARNOLD?