Competition & Conflict in Ancient Greece Persian Wars Peloponnesian Wars Ionian Greeks rebel against Persian Empire Ionian Greeks Persian (Achaemenid) Empire Darius Invades, 490 BCE Athenians defeat the Persians at the Battle of Marathon, 490BCE Burial Mound (192 Athenians died; over 6,000 Persians) Themistocles encourages Athenians to form a powerful navy Model of a Greek trireme Themistocles Xerxes launches invasion of Balkan Peninsula 480 BCE King Leonidas fights the Persians at Thermopylae Was it a victory? Greeks organize the Delian League to meet continued threats from Persia Age of Pericles: the Golden Age of Athens War broke out between Athens and Sparta, 431BCE Sparta, founder of the Peloponnesian League, invaded Athens rd 1/3 of Athenian population dies in a terrible plague, including Pericles Internal fighting amongst Greek city states, Thebes defeats Sparta Macedonia conquers all Greek citystates, 338BCE Pericles Funeral Oration (later recorded by Thucydides) "My task is now finished. I have performed it to the best of my ability, and in word, at least, the requirements of the law are now satisfied. If deeds be in question, those who are here interred have received part of their honours already, and for the rest, their children will be brought up till manhood at the public expense: the state thus offers a valuable prize, as the garland of victory in this race of valour, for the reward both of those who have fallen and their survivors. And where the rewards for merit are greatest, there are found the best citizens. Closure Questions 1. How is one of these conflicts an example of Greek unity while the other is an example of Greek discord? 2. In what way did Athenian power contribute to the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War? 3. Why might it be said that all Greeks were losers in the Peloponnesian War?