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Transcript
Class 2: Evolution Review
• Mechanisms of Evolution
• Types of Evidence
• Hominids
Mechanisms of Evolution
• Darwin (mid 1800’s)
– Naturalist = biologist who made observations about plants
and animals
– HMS Beagle  Galapagos Islands
– Found species similar to those in Central and South
America … but slightly different on the different islands.
• Natural Selection = organisms with traits best suited for
a given environment are more likely to survive and
reproduce
• Artificial Selection = humans select for desired traits
and purposely breed plants and animals for these traits
2 Types of Selection:
Artificial Selection -> manmade
• Plants
• Animals – Dog Breeds
Natural Selection –> natural
• Galapagos Islands
• http://www.youtube.com/w
atch?v=n3265bno2X0
Principles of Natural Selection
1. Organisms produce more offspring than can survive
2. Genotypic variations are found among off-spring.
Sources of variation include:
–
–
–
Mutations
Transpositions (Barbara McClintock)
Sexual Reproductions
3. Variations are passed on to offspring
4. Some variations allow members of a population to
survive and reproduce … while others do not.
5. Over time, offspring with beneficial adaptations
survive and reproduce more often  more and more
of the population exhibit the beneficial phenotype
“Evolution” in Our Classroom!
• Pick a tool
– Knife
– Fork
– Spoon
• Why did you pick the one you did?
• Task 1  Results?
• Pick a tool
– Knife
– Fork
– Spoon
• Task 2  Results?
How fast does evolutionary change occur?
KEY IDEA: It depends … on the environment!
How fast does evolutionary change occur?
Types of Evidence
• Fossil Record
– Dating
• Stratigraphy
• Radiometric
– Geological Timeline
•
•
•
•
Similarities in genetic make-up
Homologous structures
Vestigial structures
Embryology
Fossil Record – Paleontology/ Geology
• Dating
• Stratigraphy
• Radiometric
• Geological Timeline
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SY3MZ_wNFW8
Similarities in Genetic Make-up –
Molecular Biology
• All living organisms have DNA
• The more closely related the more
commonalities in the sequence and pairs
Humans and Chimps share 98 %
Humans and other Humans share 99%
Commonalities Structures - Anatomy
• Homologous
structures =
Body parts that
are similar in
origin and
structure
• Vestigial
structures =
body part that
doesn’t seem to
have a function,
anymore
Embryology
• Comparative Embryology
Class __: Evolution Review
• Mechanisms of Evolution
• Types of Evidence
• Hominids
Mechanisms of Evolution
• D________________________ (mid 1800’s)
– Naturalist = biologist who made observations about plants
and animals
– HMS Beagle  Galapagos Islands
– Found species similar to those in Central and South
America … but slightly different on the different islands.
• Natural Selection = organisms with t_______________
best suited for a given e_____________________ are
more likely to survive and r____________________
• Artificial Selection = h____________________ select
for desired traits and purposely breed plants and
animals for these traits
2 Types of Selection:
A______________________
Selection -> manmade
• Plants
• Animals – Dog Breeds
N________________________
Selection –> natural
• Galapagos Islands
• http://www.youtube.com/w
atch?v=n3265bno2X0
Principles of Natural Selection
1. Organisms produce more o__________ than can survive
2. Genotypic variations are found among off-spring. Sources
of variation include:
–
–
–
M_______________________________
T______________________________ (Barbara McClintock)
S_________________________ Reproduction
3. V_____________________ are passed on to offspring
4. Some variations allow members of a population to
s______________ and reproduce … while others do not.
5. Over time, offspring with b______________ adaptations
survive and reproduce m________________ often 
more and more of the population exhibit the beneficial
p____________________________
“Evolution” in Our Classroom!
• Pick a tool
– Knife
– Fork
– Spoon
• Why did you pick the one you did?
• Task 1  Results? ___________________________________
• Pick a tool
– Knife
– Fork
– Spoon
• Task 2  Results? ___________________________________
How fast does evolutionary change occur?
KEY IDEA: It depends … _________________
How fast does evolutionary change occur?
Types of Evidence
• F____________________ Record
– Dating
• Stratigraphy
• Radiometric
– Geological Timeline
•
•
•
•
Similarities in g_______________ make-up
H_________________ structures
V_________________ structures
Embryology
Fossil Record – Paleontology/ Geology
• Dating
• S__________________
• R__________________
• G_________ Timeline
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SY3MZ_wNFW8
Similarities in Genetic Make-up –
Molecular Biology
• All living organisms have _______________
• The more closely r____________________
the more commonalities in the sequence
and pairs
Humans and Chimps share 98 %
Humans and other Humans share 99%
Commonalities Structures - Anatomy
• Homologous
structures =
Body parts that are
________________
origin and
________________
• Vestigial
structures = body
part that doesn’t
seem to have a
______________,
anymore
E_________________
• Comparative Embryology