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Transcript
Chapter 6 Greece’s Golden and Hellenistic Age
Hellenistic Culture
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This was a mixture of Greek and Middle Eastern cultures that formed during and after Alexander
Alexandra was the center and the most important city
In 508 BC citizens began controlling Athenian government
Greece contributions were
1. Government
2. Sports
3. Drama
4. Philosophy
5. History
6. Architecture
Be able to locate on a Map: Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea, Greece, Crete, Dardanelles, Byzantium
Alexander the Great
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His most lasting achievement was the spreading of Greek culture
After conquering Greece, Alexander conquered
1. Persian Empire
2. Egypt
3. Indus Valley
The farthest extent of his conquest was the Indus Valley
Pericles: ruler of Athens from 461-429 BC
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Helped Athens achieve the most complete democracy in history
Believed that a city’s survival depended on citizen participation in government
Believed that Sparta emphasized muscles over intellect
Macedonia
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Conquered Greece due to the following factors
1. Philip II used Greek-style military techniques
2. Greek city states did not cooperate with each other
3. Greek was weakened after the Peloponnesian War
Philip II
1. was the Macedonian King who conquered most of Greece
2. Spent 3 years as a hostage in Thebes where he learned about Greek culture and military techniques
3. He admired Greek ways
4. He organized a well-disciplined army
5. Some Greeks saw him as a savior.
Art:
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Expressed belief in simplicity and balance
Pottery was painted with scenes from everyday life
They created decorated storage vessels called amphora
Sculptures showed the human traits of pride, strength, athletic ability, beauty and grace.
Chapter 6 Greece’s Golden and Hellenistic Age
Architecture
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Be able to identify all 3 of the column types
1. Doric: Plain capital
2. Ionic: Rams horns:
3. Corinthian: Leaves
Parthenon:
1.
2.
3.
Temple to Athena
Admired because it has perfectly balanced proportions
Notable for its graceful proportions and use of perspective
People
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Scientists
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Archimedes:
1. Invented compound pulley
2. Invented a screw like device to draw water
3. Calculated the value of pi
4. Explained how levers worked
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Pythagoras: Pythagorean Theorem: a2 + b2 = c2
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Euclid: wrote The Elements of Geometry
Medical
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Believed the center of the central nervous system was the brain
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Hippocrates
1. His work sums up Greek medical science because it bases medical treatment on reason, not magic
or supernatural reasons.
2. Developed the code of conduct for doctors that is still used today. (Hippocratic oath)
Philosophers
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Early philosophers were called cosmologists because they studied the nature of the universe
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Epicureanism: philosophy that advocated seeking joy and avoiding pain
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Socrates
1. Believed that students should learn to think for themselves
2. His method foced students to question everything and defend their statements
3. Put to death for corrupting the youth and neglecting the city gods.
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Aristotle: believed that every field of knowledge should be studied in a systematic way
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Plato:
1. Believed that government should be run by aristocratic philosophers
2. Wrote The Republic a book about his vision of a perfectly governed society.
Writers
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Thucydides
1. Wrote History of the Peloponnesian War, a history based on fact not legend
2. Believed that history should be fair and accurate
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Aristophanes: wrote comedies : social satires of current ideas and events
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Sophocles: wrote tragedies
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Euripides: wrote tragedies
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Aeschylus: Wrote tragedies