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Section 4: The Glory that Was Greece
LEQ: How did Greek thinkers, artist, and writers explore the nature of the universe and people’s
place in it?
• Philosopher
• Logic
• Rhetoric
• Socrates
• Plato
• Aristotle
• Parthenon
• Tragedy
• Comedy
• Herodotus
Philosophers: Lovers of Wisdom
Greek thinkers challenged the belief that events were caused by the whims of gods
Debating Morality and Ethics
• Debated such questions as what was the best kind of government and what standards
should rule human behavior
• Questioned accepted ideas
• Success was more important than moral truth
Socrates Questions Tradition
• Socratic Method
• Pose a series of questions to a student and challenge them to examine the
implications of their answers
Plato Envisions a Perfect Society
• Emphasized the importance of reason
• Author of The Republic
• Rejected Athenian democracy
• Argued that the state should regulate every aspect of its citizens’ lives
• Philosophers: Lovers of Wisdom
Aristotle Pursues the Golden Mean
• Favored rule by a single strong and virtuous leader
• Check Point
Think About it? Why might some philosophers'’ ideas be a threat to Greek tradition?
Idealism in Art and Literature
Monumental Architecture
• Parthenon: Temple dedicated to the Goddess Athena
Artist Craft Lifelike Human Form
• Showed human beings in their most perfect, graceful form
Think about it…
• Can you think of an example of architecture in the US that was heavily influenced by the
Greek style of architecture?
Greek Literature
One of the Greeks greatest contributions to literature was the Greek tragedy: plays that told
stories of human suffering that usually ended in disaster
• Questioned many accepted ideas of the day
Others wrote comedies: humorous plays that mocked people or customs
• Criticized society
• Are tragedies and comedy used the same today as they were in ancient Greece?
Recording Events as History
Herodotus is known as the Father of history
• He went beyond simply listing names and retelling ancient legends and tried to collect
information from witnesses
Section 5: Alexander and the Hellenistic Age
LEQ: How did Alexander the Great expand his empire and spread Greek culture throughout the
• Alexander the Great
• Philip II
• Assassination
• Assimilate
• Alexandria
• Pythagoras
• Heliocentric
• Archimedes
• Hippocrates
The Empire of Alexander the Great
Philip II (ruler of Macedonia) conquered Greece (359 BC)
• Dreamed of conquering the Persian Empire as well
After his assassination, his son, Alexander, takes over and takes over Persia and advances into
The Legacy of Alexander
Cultures Combine
• Local people assimilated Greek ideas and the Greek settlers adopted local cultures
• Known as the Hellenistic Age
The heart of the Hellenistic Age was in the capital Alexandria
Women gained more rights
Hellenistic Arts and Sciences
New Philosophies
• Stoics preached that all people were morally equal
Advances in Math and Astronomy
• Pythagoras created the Pythagorean theory
• Aristarchus argued the theory of a heliocentric or sun centered solar system
• Archimedes applied principles of physics to make practical inventions
• Hippocrates studied the causes of illnesses and looked for cures