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New Spain
D. Treaty of Tordesillas – 1494
1. decision by Pope to settle
disputed claims of
Portugal and Spain
2. divided Spanish and
Portuguese territory in
“New World” North-South
by 46th meridian
3. Portugal got land east of
line – Brazil and African
islands
4. Spain got land west of
line – everything else
E. New Spain – (“Crash Course”)
1. Spanish explorers – Conquistadors and Missionaries conquered
Caribbean, C. & S. America
a. 1519 – Hernan Cortes conquered Aztecs (Chief Montezuma)
in Tenochtitlan; est. Mexico City
b. 1535 – Francisco Pizarro conquered Incas in Peru, est. city of
Lima
c. 1539-1542—de Soto explored Southeast (U.S.)
d. 1540-1542—Coronado explored Southwest (U.S.)
2. Spain est. Encomienda System of govt. in New Spain
a. Large tracts of land given to Spanish conquerors
b. Indigenous inhabitants became property of conquerors; forced labor on sugar
plantations; to be converted to Catholicism
c. Considered inhumane/slavery by church; replaced by Repartimiento system
d. Conquistadores inter-married w/Indian women – “new race” called mestizos – cultural
and biological bridge between Spain and indigenous Americans
3. Columbian Exchange transforms life on 3 continents
a. From the New World (America) to the Old – corn, potatoes, tobacco,
beans, peppers, manioc, pumpkin, squash, tomato, wild rice, etc.
b. From the Old World to the New
1. cows, pigs, horses, wheat, sugar cane, apples, cabbage, citrus, carrots,
Kentucky bluegrass, etc.
2. devastating diseases (smallpox, yellow fever, malaria), as Indians had no
immunities – An estimated 90% of all pre-Columbus Indians died, mostly due
to disease.
c. From Africa to New World – slave labor to work sugar plantations with loss
of Indian population
“The Black Legend, Native Americans and Spaniards”
What does this graphic illustrate?
1. Identify 3 things that Europe got from the Americas in the Columbian Exchange.
2. Identify 3 things that the Americas got from Europe in the Columbian Exchange.
4. Other Europeans threaten Spanish dominance
a. England (1497): John Cabot (an Italian who sailed for England)
touched the coast of the current day U.S.
b. France (1524): Giovanni de Verrazano also touched on the
North American seaboard.
c. France (1535): Jacques Cartier went into mouth of St.
Lawrence River (Canada).
d. France (1608) —Samuel de Champlain founded Québec
e. France (1679): Robert de LaSalle sailed down the Mississippi
River claiming the whole region for their King Louis and
naming the area "Louisiana" after his king.
f. French empire included St. Lawrence River, Great Lakes,
Mississippi
1. Very few permanent settlements – only fur trading posts
2. Fur trade with Indian trading partners very profitable
Voyages of European Exploration
back
What is happening in this scene?
What is happening in this scene?
1. According to this painting, DESCRIBE the relationship between Spanish colonists in America
and the American Indians.
2. IDENTIFY specific examples from the painting that illustrate the nature of this relationship.