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New Spain D. Treaty of Tordesillas – 1494 1. decision by Pope to settle disputed claims of Portugal and Spain 2. divided Spanish and Portuguese territory in “New World” North-South by 46th meridian 3. Portugal got land east of line – Brazil and African islands 4. Spain got land west of line – everything else E. New Spain – (“Crash Course”) 1. Spanish explorers – Conquistadors and Missionaries conquered Caribbean, C. & S. America a. 1519 – Hernan Cortes conquered Aztecs (Chief Montezuma) in Tenochtitlan; est. Mexico City b. 1535 – Francisco Pizarro conquered Incas in Peru, est. city of Lima c. 1539-1542—de Soto explored Southeast (U.S.) d. 1540-1542—Coronado explored Southwest (U.S.) 2. Spain est. Encomienda System of govt. in New Spain a. Large tracts of land given to Spanish conquerors b. Indigenous inhabitants became property of conquerors; forced labor on sugar plantations; to be converted to Catholicism c. Considered inhumane/slavery by church; replaced by Repartimiento system d. Conquistadores inter-married w/Indian women – “new race” called mestizos – cultural and biological bridge between Spain and indigenous Americans 3. Columbian Exchange transforms life on 3 continents a. From the New World (America) to the Old – corn, potatoes, tobacco, beans, peppers, manioc, pumpkin, squash, tomato, wild rice, etc. b. From the Old World to the New 1. cows, pigs, horses, wheat, sugar cane, apples, cabbage, citrus, carrots, Kentucky bluegrass, etc. 2. devastating diseases (smallpox, yellow fever, malaria), as Indians had no immunities – An estimated 90% of all pre-Columbus Indians died, mostly due to disease. c. From Africa to New World – slave labor to work sugar plantations with loss of Indian population “The Black Legend, Native Americans and Spaniards” What does this graphic illustrate? 1. Identify 3 things that Europe got from the Americas in the Columbian Exchange. 2. Identify 3 things that the Americas got from Europe in the Columbian Exchange. 4. Other Europeans threaten Spanish dominance a. England (1497): John Cabot (an Italian who sailed for England) touched the coast of the current day U.S. b. France (1524): Giovanni de Verrazano also touched on the North American seaboard. c. France (1535): Jacques Cartier went into mouth of St. Lawrence River (Canada). d. France (1608) —Samuel de Champlain founded Québec e. France (1679): Robert de LaSalle sailed down the Mississippi River claiming the whole region for their King Louis and naming the area "Louisiana" after his king. f. French empire included St. Lawrence River, Great Lakes, Mississippi 1. Very few permanent settlements – only fur trading posts 2. Fur trade with Indian trading partners very profitable Voyages of European Exploration back What is happening in this scene? What is happening in this scene? 1. According to this painting, DESCRIBE the relationship between Spanish colonists in America and the American Indians. 2. IDENTIFY specific examples from the painting that illustrate the nature of this relationship.