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Chapter 1 Notes
When Two Worlds Collide
 Two ecosystems long separated come together with
the discovery of Christopher Columbus.
From the old world came, Wheat, Sugar, rice,
coffee, horses, cows, pigs, smallpox, measles,
bubonic plague, influenza, typhus, diphtheria, scarlet
Gold, Silver, corn, potatoes, pineapples, tomatoes,
tobacco, beans, vanilla, chocolate, Syphilis, all were
taken back to Europe
In the centuries after Columbus’s arrival as many
as 90% of the native population perished
The Conquistadores
 The Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 set up
a line of demarcation the divided the
new world between rivals Portugal
and Spain
Spain will dominate the exploration
of the New World
God, Gold, and Glory were the
three driving factors.
Balboa discovers and lays claim to all the land
washed by the Pacific Ocean in 1513
Magellan will circumnavigate the globe finishing in
1522 (Magellan had actually died in the Philippines
and his crew finished the voyage.)
Ponce de Leon explored Florida in 1521
Coronado 1540 -1542 tried to find the seven cities
of gold but explored much of the Southwest
Hernando de Soto1539 – 1542 looking for gold
discovered the Mississippi
Pizarro Crushed the Incans in Peru
Cortes subdues the Aztecs in 1521. The Aztecs were
fierce warriors who practiced human sacrifice. As
many as 14,000 in a 48 hour period.
Spain became extremely wealthy in new world gold
and silver, causing inflation of as much as 500% in
 The native population of Mexico shrank from 20
million people to 2 million in less than a century.
 More than conquest however:
 crops and animals
 language and laws
 customs and religion – the temple sites of the Aztecs
became the sites of Catholic cathedrals in Mexico city
 intermarriage with the surviving Indians created a
distinctive culture the mestizos (people of mixed
Indian and European blood)
The Spread of Spanish America
Missions on the California coast
First Spanish settlement in the U. S. St. Augustine in
Florida 1565
Santa Fe New Mexico – Indian uprising in 1680 called
the Pope’s rebellion with the pueblo Indians – Indians
will destroy the Spanish settlement and kill priests
and Spanish settlers – they will build their KIVAS on
the ruins of the plaza at Santa Fe.
The Spanish who were a 100 years before the English
were the empire builders and cultural innovators in
the New World.
Spanish will fuse with the Native Americans through
marriage and incorporating their culture into their
own rather than shunning and isolating the Indians
like the English do.