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By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
Edited & Adapted by R. Kolodinski - Glendale HS
Glendale, CA
Renaissance Trade
• Who controlled trade in Renaissance Europe?
• Which cities appear to have key locations?
Which group
controlled the
Middle East,
North Africa,&
Spain?
Middle
East
The Portuguese
• Henry the Navigator
Caravel = cargo!
– Portuguese
expansion >> Ceuta
in Africa
– Navigation School
>> caravel,
cartography
– Funds voyages of
Exploration
Unified Spain
• Ferdinand of
Aragon married
Isabella of Castile
to create unified
Spain
• Drive out Moors /
Jews 1492
• Spanish Inquisition
vs. “Heretics”
[1451-1506] Cristobal Colon
Columbus’ Four Voyages
Treaty of Tordesillas
• Spain vs. Portugal –
Christian nations?
• Pope Alexander VI
– Mediates
– Line of Demarcation
– Re-Negotiates
• War Avoided
• Impact?
Ferdinand Magellan & the First
Circumnavigation of the World:
1520s
European Explorations
Why can’t we get
over here?
On to China
Looking for “El Dorado” & NW Passage
The First Spanish Conquests:
The Aztecs
vs.
Fernando Cortes
Montezuma II
The Death of Montezuma II
Mexico Surrenders to Cortes after
Siege of Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan: Amazing!
The Spanish Conquest of
The Incas
vs.
Francisco
Pizarro
Atahualpa
Docs. 1- 4
The “Columbian Exchange”

Squash

Avocado

Peppers

Sweet Potatoes

Turkey

Pumpkin

Tobacco

Quinine

Cocoa

Pineapple

Cassava

POTATO

Peanut

TOMATO

Vanilla

MAIZE

Syphilis

Trinkets

Liquor

GUNS

Olive

COFFEE BEAN

Banana

Rice

Onion

Turnip

Honeybee

Barley

Grape

Peach

SUGAR CANE

Oats

Citrus Fruits

Pear

Wheat

HORSE

Cattle

Sheep

Pigs

Smallpox

Flu

Typhus

Measles

Malaria

Diphtheria

Whooping Cough
Cycle of Conquest & Colonization
Explorers
Official
European
Colony!
Spanish
Empire
•
•
•
•
New Spain
New Granada
Peru
La Plata
Mercantilism
The economy &
trade are essential
to the health &
safety of the nation.
1.Get as much gold and silver
as you can… world has only a
finite amount of wealth
2.Establish a favorable balance
of trade… Exports > Imports
3.Get colonies = Supply & Market
Colonial Treasures
from the Americas!
Spanish Colonial Class System
Peninsulares
Mestizos
Native Indians
Creoles
Mulattos
Black Slaves
The Influence of the Colonial Catholic
Church
Guadalajara
Cathedral
Spanish Mission
Our Lady of
Guadalupe
Father Bartolome de Las Casas
• Conquest
unnecessary for
Conversion
• Exposed brutality
• Black Legend
emerges
• New Laws 1500s
How did all this impact Europe?
•
•
•
•
•
Increased European competition
New Technology & discovery
First global power > Spain
Mercantilism >> Inflation
Capitalism grows >> middle class
grows
• Christianity & Columbian Exchange
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
Slave Ship
“Coffin” Position Below Deck
African Captives
Thrown Overboard
Slaves Working in a
Brazilian Sugar Mill
Sacrifice of the First-Born
by Theodore de Bry
European Empires in the Americas