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Transcript
Name ________________________________________ Class _________________ Date _______________
5.1
ATOMS
SECTION REVIEW
Objectives
• Summarize Dalton’s atomic theory
• Describe the size of an atom
Key Terms
• Dalton’s atomic theory
• atom
Part A Completion
Use this completion exercise to check your understanding of the concepts and terms
that are introduced in this section. Each blank can be completed with a term, short
phrase, or number.
According to Dalton’s atomic theory, elements are composed
1
of tiny particles called
2
. Atoms of each element are
from the atoms of all other elements. Atoms of different
elements can form
3
by combining in whole-number ratios.
Chemical reactions occur when
4
1. _______________________
2. _______________________
3. _______________________
4. _______________________
are separated, joined, or
rearranged.
Part B True-False
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Classify each of these statements as always true, AT; sometimes true, ST; or never true, NT.
________ 5. Atoms of one element change into atoms of another element during
chemical reactions.
________ 6. Atoms combine in one-to-one ratios to form compounds.
________ 7. Atoms of one element are different from atoms of other elements.
Review Module / Chapters 5–8
7
Name ________________________________________ Class _________________ Date _______________
Part C Matching
Match each description in Column B to the correct term in Column A.
Column A
Column B
________ 8. atom
a. theory to explain the reactive behavior of elements
________ 9. Dalton’s atomic theory
b. teacher in ancient Greece
________ 10. John Dalton
c. the smallest particle of an element that retains the
properties of that element.
________ 11. Democritus
d. 19th-century English school teacher who formulated a
theory to describe the structure and chemical reactivity
of matter in terms of atoms
Part D Questions and Problems
Answer the following questions in the space provided.
12. In what type of ratios do atoms combine to form compounds?
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13. How many copper atoms would you have to line up side by side to form a line
1 m long?
8
Review Module / Chapters 5–8
Name ________________________________________ Class _________________ Date _______________
STRUCTURE OF THE NUCLEAR ATOM
5.2
SECTION REVIEW
Objectives
• Distinguish among protons, electrons, and neutrons in terms of relative mass
and charge
• Describe the structure of an atom, including the location of the protons,
electrons, and neutrons with respect to the nucleus
Key Terms
• electrons
• cathode ray
• protons
• neutrons
• nucleus
Part A Completion
Use this completion exercise to check your understanding of the concepts and terms
that are introduced in this section. Each blank can be completed with a term, short
phrase, or number.
Dalton theorized that atoms are indivisible, but the discovery
1
of
particles changed this theory. Scientists now know that
2
atoms are made up of electrons, which have a
3
,which have a positive charge; and
4
atom. It was
6
2. _______________________
charge;
3. _______________________
, which are
4. _______________________
5
5. _______________________
neutral. The latter two particles are found in the
of the
who discovered the nucleus of the atom. The
nucleus, which has a
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1. _______________________
7
6. _______________________
charge, occupies a very small volume
of the atom. In contrast, the negatively charged
8
occupy
7. _______________________
8. _______________________
most of the volume of the atom.
Part B True-False
Classify each of these statements as always true, AT; sometimes true, ST; or never true, NT.
______
9. According to Dalton’s atomic theory, atoms are composed of protons,
electrons, and neutrons.
______
10. Atoms of elements are electrically neutral.
______
11. The mass of an electron is equal to the mass of a neutron.
______
12. The charge on all protons is the same.
Review Module / Chapters 5–8
9
Name ________________________________________ Class _________________ Date _______________
Part C Matching
Match each description in Column B to the correct term in Column A
Column A
Column B
________ 13. electrons
a. a beam that travels from a cathode to an anode
________ 14. cathode ray
b. the central core of an atom, which is composed of
protons and neutrons
c. negatively charged subatomic particles
________ 15. protons
d. subatomic particles with no charge
________ 16. neutrons
e. positively charged subatomic particles.
________ 17. nucleus
Part D Questions and Problems
Answer the following questions in the space provided.
18. Which subatomic particles are found in the nucleus of an atom?
19. Which subatomic particles are charged?
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20. Describe Rutherford’s model of the atom, including the location of protons,
neutrons, and electrons with respect to the nucleus. How does this model
explain the deflection of alpha particles by gold foil?
10
Review Module / Chapters 5–8
Name ________________________________________ Class _________________ Date _______________
DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN ATOMS
5.3
SECTION REVIEW
Objectives
• Explain how the atomic number identifies an element
• Use the atomic number and mass number of an element to find the numbers
of protons, electrons, and neutrons
• Explain how isotopes differ and why the atomic masses of elements are not
whole numbers
• Calculate the average atomic mass of an element from isotope data
Key Terms
• atomic number
• mass number
• isotopes
• atomic mass unit (amu)
• atomic mass
Key Equations
• atomic number 5 number of protons 5 number of electrons
• number of neutrons 5 mass number 2 atomic number
Part A Completion
Use this completion exercise to check your understanding of the concepts and terms
that are introduced in this section. Each blank can be completed with a term, short
phrase, or number.
The number of
atomic
2
1
in the nucleus of an atom is the
of that element. Because atoms are electrically
2. _______________________
3
in an atom are equal.
3. _______________________
and neutrons is the mass number. Atoms
4. _______________________
neutral, the number of protons and
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The sum of the
4
of the same element are identical in most respects, but they can
5
differ in the number of
in the nucleus. Atoms that have
the same number of protons but different mass numbers are
called
The
6
.
7
5. _______________________
6. _______________________
7. _______________________
8. _______________________
of an element is the weighted average of the
masses of the isotopes of that element. Each of the three known
isotopes of hydrogen has
8
10
9. _______________________
10. _______________________
proton(s) in the nucleus. The
most common hydrogen isotope has
atomic mass of
1. _______________________
9
neutrons. It has an
amu and is called hydrogen-1.
Review Module / Chapters 5–8
11
Name ________________________________________ Class _________________ Date _______________
Part B True-False
Classify each of these statements as always true, AT; sometimes true, ST; or never true, NT.
________ 11. The atomic number of an element is the sum of the protons and
electrons in an atom of that element.
________ 12. The atomic number of an atom is the total number of protons in an
atom of that element.
________ 13. An atom of nitrogen has 7 protons and 7 neutrons.
________ 14. Relative atomic masses are expressed in amus.
________ 15. The number of neutrons in the nucleus can be calculated by
subtracting the atomic number from the mass number.
Part C Matching
Match each description in Column B to the correct term in Column A
Column A
Column B
________ 16. atomic number
a. atoms that have the same number of protons but
different numbers of neutrons
________ 17. mass number
b. weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally
occurring sample of an element
________ 18. isotopes
c. the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
________ 19. atomic mass unit (amu)
d. one-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom
________ 20. atomic mass
e. the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of
an element
Solve the following problem in the space provided.
21. Given the relative abundance of the following naturally occurring isotopes of
oxygen, calculate the average atomic mass of oxygen:
oxygen-16:
oxygen-17:
oxygen-18:
12
99.76%
0.037%
0.204%
Review Module / Chapters 5–8
Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
Part D Questions and Problems
Name ________________________________________ Class _________________ Date _______________
THE PERIODIC TABLE: ORGANIZING THE ELEMENTS
5.4
SECTION REVIEW
Objectives
• Describe the origin of the periodic table
• Identify the position of groups, periods, and the transition metals in the
periodic table
Key Terms
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
periodic table
periods
periodic law
group
representative elements
•
•
•
•
metals
alkali metals
alkaline earth metals
transition metals
nonmetals
halogens
noble gases
metalloids
inner transition metals
Part A Completion
Use this completion exercise to check your understanding of the concepts and terms
that are introduced in this section. Each blank can be completed with a term, short
phrase, or number.
The periodic table organizes the elements into vertical
2
and horizontal
3
2. _______________________
constructed so that elements that have similar chemical properties
3. _______________________
4
are in the same
5
. The elements in Groups 1A through 7A are
. The
6
make up Group 0. The elements in
Groups 2A and 3A are interrupted in periods 4 and 5 by the
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1. _______________________
. The table is
called the
in order of increasing
1
and in the periods 6 and 7 by the
are called the
10
9
8
7
. The nonmetals of
11
are called the halogens.
Elements with properties that are intermediate between those of
metals and nonmetals are called
12
.
5. _______________________
6. _______________________
. The Group 1A elements
, and the Group 2A elements are called the
4. _______________________
7. _______________________
8. _______________________
9. _______________________
10. _______________________
11. _______________________
12. _______________________
Review Module / Chapters 5–8
13
Name ________________________________________ Class _________________ Date _______________
Part B True-False
Classify each of these statements as always true, AT; sometimes true, ST; or never true, NT.
________ 13. In his periodic table, Mendeleev arranged the elements in ascending
order of atomic number.
________ 14. The representative elements are the Group A elements.
________ 15. The transition metals and inner transition metals are the Group B
elements.
________ 16. The element in Group 4A, period 3, is gallium.
Part C Matching
Match each description in Column B to the correct term in Column A
Column A
Column B
________ 17. periodic table
a. a vertical column of elements in the periodic table
________ 18. periods
b. the Group 0 elements
________ 19. group
c. The Group 1A elements
________ 20. representative elements
d. a portion of the Group B elements
________ 21. alkali metals
e. an arrangement of elements according to similarities in
their properties
________ 22. transition metals
f. Group A elements
________ 23. halogens
g. the horizontal rows of the periodic table
________ 24. noble gases
h. the Group 7A elements
Answer the following questions in the space provided.
25. List the elements of Group 5A. Tell whether each is a metal, nonmetal, or
metalloid.
26. List three properties of metals.
14
Review Module / Chapters 5–8
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Part D Questions and Problems