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Chapter 18
Promotion: Integrated
Marketing Communications
I. What is Promotion?
Communicating information between the
seller and potential buyer to influence the
attitudes and behavior of the potential
II. Elements of the Promotion Mix
Personal selling
Public Relations / Publicity
Sales Promotion
Direct Marketing
Personal Selling
Direct face-to-face communication
between sellers and potential buyers.
Examples – car sales person,
pharmecutical rep
Any paid form of nonpersonal
communication through the mass media
about a good, service, or idea by an
identified sponsor.
Examples – advertisements in magazines,
newspapers, radio, and TV
Public Relations
A form of communication that seeks to
influence what customers, potential
customers, stockholders, suppliers, and
employees think about a company and its
Examples – special events, annual
reports, press conferences
News carried by the media about a firm or
its products at no charge to the
organization for media time and space
Example – book reviews, articles carried in
newspaper about new store opening,
guest appearances on TV and radio
Sales Promotion
Short-term incentives used to arouse
interest in buying a good or service.
Examples – coupons, sweepstakes,
contests, free samples, rebates
Direct Marketing
Direct communication with consumers to
generate a response in the form of an
order, a request for information, or a visit
to a retail outlet.
Examples – direct mail, catalogs,
telemarketing, online marketing
III. Integrated Marketing Communications
Designing marketing communications
programs that coordinate all promotional
activities to provide a consistent message
across all audiences.
IV. The Communications Process
Channel of communication
FIGURE 18-1 The communication process
Slide 18-7
Who is the source and what is the message?
Slide 18-9