Download Global climate zones Ic: an idealized simple view

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Transcript
Railsback's Some Fundamentals of Mineralogy and Geochemistry
Global climate zones Ic: an idealized simple view
Vertical
cross-section
Map view
Polar Cell
H
Hadley
Cell
H
L
Ferrel
Cell
Climate Zones
L
H
Polar High
L
H
L
H
60°N
H
H
L
L
L
L
L 0°
L
Hadley
Cell
Dry
Polar Front
Temperate
Westerlies
30°N Subtropical Highs
Weather
Polar Easterlies
Subpolar Lows
(anticyclones)
L
Wind Belts
and Zones
Rainy
Winter wet; summer dry
Horse Latitudes
Dry
Winter dry; summer wet
Tropics
Easterlies
Trade
(Northeasterlies) Winds
Intertropical
Convergence
Zone (ITCZ)
Doldrums
Tropics
Easterlies
Trade
(Southeasterlies) Winds
Rainy
Winter dry; summer wet
H
Ferrel
Cell
H
L
Polar Cell
The diagram above is a typical schematic representation of Earth's surface atmospheric pressure,
surface winds, and tropospheric circulation. It
mimics diagrams in many introductory climatology
and oceanography textbooks. Parts II to V of this
series expand on this theme in a little more detail.
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
H
60°S
30°S
Subtropical Highs
Horse Latitudes
(anticyclones)
Temperate
Westerlies
Subpolar Lows
Polar Front
Polar High
Atmospheric circulation is driven by rising of warm air at the
equator (at the latitude of maximal solar heating) and by sinking
of cold air at the poles (at the latitude of minimal heating). On Earth,
the air that has risen from the equator sinks at about 30° N and S,
and some of that air returns across Earth's surface to the equator to
close the Hadley Cells. The air that has sunk and moved out from
Dry
Winter wet; summer dry
Polar Easterlies
Rainy
Dry
the poles warms and rises at about 60° N and S, and the air that
returns aloft to the pole closes the Polar Cells. In between, the Ferrel
Cells mirror the vertical flow at 30° and 60° N and S, with each cell
like a ball bearing rolled by the other two cells. Earth-surface movement of air in these three kinds of cells gives the surface
LBR 2/2013
winds belts shown here.
GlobalClimateZonesIc02.odg