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Transcript
Bloomsburg University
Principles of Sociology
Department of Sociology, Social Work & Criminal Justice
Dr. Leo G. Barrile
FINAL EXAM
1.
An example of traditional authority in Weber’s model is selecting a person for a job who:
2.
An example of rational/legal authority in Weber’s model is selecting a person for a job who:
3.
An example of charismatic authority in Weber’s model is selecting a person for a job who:
4.
In which researcher’s study was it found that people follow orders of an expert or institution official even
when they are told to harm others in a simple “learning” task:
5.
In which researcher’s study was it found that strangers in a group can influence a person to contradict his or
her own perception:
6.
Which researcher’s study is closest to explaining what happened at Abu Ghraib:
7.
According to Hughes’notion of “good people, dirty work” the execution of Jews in Nazi Germany can be
explained by:
8.
Which of the following concepts best describes the hypothesis that even in democracies power is
centralized in the top of the bureaucracy?
9.
When people witness an accident or crime and they fail to intervene because they believe someone else will
help, the phenomenon is called?
10.
When people witness an accident or crime and they fail to intervene because they believe they fear they fail
in doing any good, the phenomenon is called:
11.
In small groups which type of leader attempts to take control of the group regardless of his or her expertise
or knowledge or the wishes of the group itself?
12.
In small groups which type of leader attempts to keep the group on tasks or goals:
13.
In small groups which type of leader attempts to inspire the group to attain higher goals or ideals.:
14.
Which of the following is problematic in a bureaucratic organization?
15.
When bureaucracies focus on the rules, regulations and proper procedures to the detriment of fulfilling their ultimate
goals for clients, it was referred to by Merton as:
16.
A low status person is most likely to find equality with a high status person in which type of “group structure”?
17.
A loose connection of ties to others from direct and indirect knowledge of them is called a:
18.
A bureaucracy requires all but which of the following factors:
19.
For Weber, in a bureaucracy the rules are likely to protect a person from being arbitrarily fired if she is performing
her job, but also likely to restrict a person from making decisions external to her narrow role. Weber called this
phenomenon the:
20.
Simmel argued that it was easier to tell a stranger at a train stop one personal problems than a group of friends?
21. ________ is the term for the regular enactment of policies, decisions, and matters of state on the part of officials
within a political apparatus.
1
22.________ is the means whereby power is used to affect the scope and content of governmental activities. (not in notes but
in chapter 13)
23. Which term refers to the legitimate use of power?
24. Where there is a political apparatus ruling over a given territory, whose authority is backed by a legal system and by
the capacity to use military force to implement its policies, a ________ exists.
25. Of the types of rights associated with the growth of citizenship, ________ refer to the personal rights of individuals
under the law.
26. In most countries, ________ are the most controversial and the last to develop, based in large part on the exercise of
the other two rights.
27. When social rights become broadly established and government agencies provide material benefits for those who are
unable to support themselves, a ________ is said to exist. (not in notes, in chapter 13)
28. A ________ exists when a king or queen continues to exercise some governmental authority, if only symbolic, but is
limited by a constitution that vests authority in the elected representatives of the citizens.
29. Why have liberal democratic systems spread so rapidly since 1989, according to the text? (not in notes, in chp.13)
30. Where is one likely to find a two-party liberal democracy, rather than one in which five, six, or more parties are
represented?
31. Which system is more likely to result in political parties that converge on the “middle ground” between the “forty
yard lines of opinion” and often come to resemble each other so closely that there is little distinctive difference in
their key policies?
32. What is an interest group?
33. What theory of the nature and limits of modern democracy was developed by Max Weber and Joseph Schumpeter?
34.
A unified group of people in the highest positions of the federal government, the large corporations, and the military
runs the United States and exercises tremendous influence in the world, according to C. Wright Mills. What is this
group called?
35. Old style terrorism is more likely to be global than new style terrorism?
36. Old style terrorism is more likely to allow for independent cell groups that can survive without strong direction from
the central group?
37. The communist command economy in China is best described by which type of state?
38.
According to Freedom House, of the following continents, which has the most countries where the people are not
politically free/democratic? (not in notes, in chapter 13)?
39.In the mini study we did in class on student participation in groups, the source of data was?
40.
In our mini study on student participation in groups, one of the main independent variables (differences among groups) was?
41.
In our mini study on student participation in groups, one of the main dependent variables (the effect) was?
42.
In our mini study, the age of the boat survivors was not significant in determining which order students voted to rank them for
early “dismissal”? .
43.
The United States has one of the highest voter participation rate of all of the industrialized countries?
2
44.
The theory that government policies are the result of a continual process of bargaining among numerous competing interest
groups?
45. The increase in Evangelical membership over the past few years is an indication that some people in the U.S?
46. Religions in which shamans contact the spiritual world is called:
47. Religions in which we look for the answers to the questions of life from within through contemplation or meditation
is called:
48. By S.E.S. sociologists are referring to:
49. Which of the following questions is most likely to be asked by a sociologist?
50. A sociologist would likely agree with all of the following statements EXCEPT:
51. Which theory maintains that society is based upon moral consensus.
52. Which theory maintains that significant others have a disproportionate role in the development of the social self.
53. Which theory maintains that economic inequality is productive because it motivates people to improve their
condition.
54. Which theory maintains that women’s work is devalued in society, which is related to the differences in men’s and
women’s wages.
55. Which sociological methodology typically gives the researcher the largest sample?
56. One of the first studies of immigrants, Thomas and Znaniecki’s, Polish Peasant in Europe and America, using letters
written by immigrants to their families, used primarily which methodology:
57. George Mead, the forbearer of the symbolic interaction approach in American sociology, believed that the individual
is like an empty box conditioned by environmental stimuli -- controlling rewards one could directly determine the
response?
58. The chief factor identifying ethnicity or an ethnic group is:
59. One of the chief factors in identifying a minority group is:
60. An example of “situational prejudice” or prejudice as “boundary maintenance
61. Which perspective would argue that using the law to equalize job opportunities will reduce gender inequality
generally?
62. In which theory is the family not seen as a source of sexism but a haven against an oppressive society:
63. Parents who pressure their adult children who have had babies out of wedlock to get married, are using which type of
64. In C.W. Mills’elite theory the three main elements of the “power elite” at the top are the:
65. In C.W. Mills’ elite theory, the role of the U.S. Congress is:
66. Which group would be most likely to advocate for making abortion illegal?
67. Conflict theory would most likely argue which form of government prevails in the U.S.
3
norm?
68. Weber argued that charisma as authority is not long lasting. What concept did he use to identify the process by which the
charismatic person’s disciples create a social movement from the person’s charisma?
69. The internet can act as a democratizing agent in otherwise undemocratic countries by the process of:
70. Which of the following is NOT an interest group:
71. Which of the following pairings of groups has the least difference in opinions about abortion?
72. Local nationalism is best represented by which group:
73. The major difference between a sociological reason given for a phenomenon and the average person’s reason giving is:
74.
In assimilation theory minority groups become part of the majority as a result of:
75.
The assimilation theory of race relations is most consistent with which of three main sociological
perspectives:
76.
In assimilation theory, the stage at which minority groups have enough economic and political power to
attain concessions from the majority group is called:
77.
To believe that the trees and rivers have a spiritual or magical nature to them is to hold which type of
religious belief:
78.
To believe in a creator god and a goddess of the harvest is to hold which type of religious belief:
79.
Marriage and animal sacrifice are examples of which aspect of religion:
80.
A goat’s horn and a cross are examples of which aspect of religion:
81.
In whose theory is religion considered the tool of the ruling class to keep the poor nonpolitical.
82.
In whose theory is the upper middle class most likely to hold a inner directed type of religious belief: .
83.
In whose theory is religion considered the basis for social solidarity:
84.
In whose theory is the poorest class most likely to believe in a other worldly, salvationistic, savior oriented
religion.
85.
There are many places in the world where men have the main responsibility for child rearing?
86.
The glass escalator refers to the phenomenon that in the business world today:
87.
Sociologists have found that the most important element in educational achievement of a student is:
88.
Margaret Mead found that in some primitive societies women are aggressive and men passive?
89.
Hegemonic masculinity or hypermasculinity are terms used to define:
90.
The social construction of gender theory typically accepts the biological basis for gender differences.
91.
The factor most responsible for making the family unit nuclear is:
92.
The most common residence pattern in the U.S. family today is:
93.
Those who cohabit before marriage are more likely to divorce than those who did not cohabit?
4
94.
Which of the following family structures has increased the most in the past 20 years?
95.
Which theory maintains that society is based upon moral consensus.
96.
Which theory maintains that significant others have a disproportionate role in the
the social self.
development of
97.
Which theory maintains that economic inequality is productive because it motivates people to improve their
condition.
98.
Which theory maintains that women’s work is devalued in society, which is related to the
differences in men’s and women’s wages.
99.
Which sociological methodology typically gives the researcher the largest sample?
100.
George Mead, the forbearer of the symbolic interaction perspective in American sociology, believed that
the individual is like an empty box conditioned by environmental stimuli--controlling rewards one could
directly determine the responses thus controlling the behavior and eventual social identity of the
individual?
101.
Of the following factors which is related to achieving a high income in the U.S.?
102.
The phenomenon that “de-skilling” or proletarianization is occurring increasingly in more jobs, has also been called by
sociologists?
103.
The phenomenon that manufacturing jobs are dwindling in the U.S. is called:
104.
A society in which there were rigid racial divisions, as existed in apartheid South Africa, would be described as which
type of society:
5