Steroids and Hormones Anabolic steroids are similar to testosterone which is the male hormone. Steroids trigger an effect in the body that stimulates immediate muscle and tissue gain. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are members of a class of natural and synthetic steroid hormones that promote cell growth and division. These hormones result in growth of many types of body tissues, especially muscle and bone. Most anabolic androgenic steroids have varying combinations of androgenic and anabolic qualities, and are often referred to AAS (anabolic/androgenic steroids). Endogenous Testosterone: see h.o. Types of Steroids • Corticosteroids - these are creams and ointments, usually for controlling rashes and itching. • Estrogens and Progestogens - relates to female sex hormones (ex. Birth control). • Androgens - anabolic steroids used for growth and development of muscle tissue and mass. The anabolic agents in steroids create a increase in retention of Nitrogen, causing an increase in the growth of muscle. They can be orally taken in a pill form, injected directly into muscle, or rubbed on muscle in a cream form. Produced by interaction of hypothalamic, pituitary & gonadal glands • Male production=5-10 mg./day • Female production = 1-2 mg./day 100% ILLEGAL TO BUY, SELL, OR POSSESS UNLESS VIA A DR’S. PRESCRITION!!!! Stored in blood – not the glands Effects on body – Anabolic: promotes muscle growth – Androgenic: promotes increase in strength Effects of Anabolic Steroids: Mimics Testosterone Androgenic Effects :male sex characteristics (want to limit these effects) Anabolic Effects: increase protein & creatine phosphate synthesis; increase muscle mass; **increase oxygen carrying capacity - not proven Types of Anabolic Steroids Endogenous: See hand out Exogenous: synthetic steroids developed to decrease androgenic effects without affecting anabolic effects. Also modified to prevent 1st pass breakdown in liver – Oral (short ½ life) – Injectable (bypass liver) Modified oral compounds have additional carbon molecule, C-17 alkylated steroids which withstand liver degradation. These are very hard on the liver. Most injectable steroids are oil based, lipid soluble. 100% ILLEGAL TO BUY, SELL, OR POSSESS UNLESS VIA A DR’S. PRESCRITION!!!! How do they work? Do they? Yes they work. They bind to receptors in skeletal muscle, prostate, heart, testes, & brain They cause increased protein synthesis & nitrogen retention which causes increased muscle size and strength & prevent catabolic effects of cortisol by controlling it’s release during intense training What they may do (+) effects • Increase in Muscle size • Increase in lean muscle mass • Ability to train more intensely for longer periods of time Legitimate Medical Use: Hypogonadal men. Burn victims, AIDS patients, severe osteoporosis, breast cancer, malnourishment, adolescent disease Uses being tested: Injury treatment, male contraception, anti-aging, lowering serum cholesterol Anabolic Steroids – Sources • Prescription: the ONLY legal way • • anemia, replacement therapy, increase appetite, abnormal protein synthesis NORMAL dose = 5-10 mg/day • Veterinarian • Blackmarket 100% ILLEGAL TO BUY, SELL, OR POSSESS UNLESS VIA A DR’S. PRESCRITION!!!! How are they taken? Cycling: take for a period of time and then cycle off before beginning again. Method used to beat drug testing Stacking: Take more than one at a time trying to achieve synergistic effect Pyramiding: gradually increase number and amount of compounds to maximize effects and decrease side effects Oral v. Injection ORAL: Less detection time, harder on liver and kidneys, fat soluble INJECTION: longer detection time, liver and kidneys not affected, injected into muscle and spread throughout body Side Effects: MEN • Reduced Sperm Count • Infertility (Long term) • Shrinking of Testicles • High Blood Pressure • Fluid Retention • *Development of breasts • Increased Facial Hair • Liver Damage (orally) • *Baldness • *Prostate enlargement • Acne WOMEN • Increased Facial Hair • HBP • *Irregular Menstruation Cycles which can cease w/long term use • Deep Voice * irreversible after prolonged use Gynecomastia: Development of breasts in males. Expensive procedure to fix. Not just caused by steroids but the use of steroids will greatly increase a person risk of getting Gynecomastia Abuse Effects on Both Sexes: severe acne, weakened tendons, ,jaundice, fluid retention, cardiovascular effects Legal Implications: Anabolic Steroid Act 1990 classified them as controlled substances. Big difference whether charged by state or Feds Use: 1st offense = 1 yr. jail & $1000 fine, 2nd offense = up to 2 yrs. jail & minimum of $2500 fine. Selling & distribution Federal offense 1st offense = up to 5 yrs. jail and $250,000 fine 2nd offense = up to 10 yrs. jail & higher fine 100% ILLEGAL TO BUY, SELL, OR POSSESS UNLESS VIA A DR’S. PRESCRITION!!!! Drug Testing Urine test • Test 1 hr. after announcing test • Masking agents – Benemid, Corticosteroids, DHEA, other substances • T/E Ratio – also measure concentration of testosterone and specific gravity Drug Testing Problems • Detection of substances that occur naturally in the body is difficult. Also must set standards of sensitivity to accommodate these levels. • Testosterone / epitestosterone ratio of 6:1 is standard guide but higher ration can occur naturally in 2-3% of population. • Baseball, NHL, NBA do not ban their use. • IOC, NCAA, NFL do ban use. Human Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) • Hormone secreted from pituitary gland • Effects – stimulate protein synthesis – stimulate growth – increase muscle mass – increase strength of muscles, tendons, etc Hormone secreted from pituitary gland Effects – stimulate protein synthesis – stimulate growth – increase muscle mass – increase strength of muscles, tendons, etc Adverse effects – acromegaly - large hands & feet – abnormal shaped head – increase size of heart, liver, kidneys – increase cholesterol – Alternative to steroids – Cheaper, harder to detect Growth Hormone Enhancers • Amino acids (aa) have been used to increase circulating growth hormone (GH) concentrations. • Strength training increases GH serum concentrations so looking for synergistic effect. • Most common aa used are arginine, lysine & ornithine Studies of aa effects • Many studies confirm increased GH concentrations after ingestion of arginine & lysine. • Effects are modified by training level, sex, diet and age. • High levels produce stomach cramps & diarrhea • Women have greater response. • People on high protein levels (1.7-2.2 g/kg day) have less effects • Ingestion right before exercise blunts absorption Peptide Secretagogues • Being developed and studied as compounds that stimulate secretion of endogenous GH. • Studies have all been done on GH deficient patients. • No reports of athletes using them but doesn’t mean there isn’t illegal use. Other GH Releasing Agents • Clonidine, L-dopa & methylphenidate have been shown to induce GH release. • L-dopa most commonly used by athletes but no studies have been done on effectiveness but does induce nausea & vomiting.