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Transcript
Steroids and Hormones
Anabolic steroids are similar to testosterone which is the male hormone. Steroids trigger an effect in the body that stimulates immediate muscle and tissue gain. Anabolic
androgenic steroids (AAS) are members of a class of natural and synthetic steroid hormones that promote cell growth and division. These hormones result in growth of
many types of body tissues, especially muscle and bone. Most anabolic androgenic steroids have varying combinations of androgenic and anabolic qualities, and are often
referred to AAS (anabolic/androgenic steroids).
Endogenous Testosterone: see h.o.
Types of Steroids
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Corticosteroids - these are creams and ointments, usually for controlling rashes and itching.
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Estrogens and Progestogens - relates to female sex hormones (ex. Birth control).
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Androgens - anabolic steroids used for growth and development of muscle tissue and mass.
The anabolic agents in steroids create a increase in retention of Nitrogen, causing an increase in the growth of muscle. They can be orally taken in a pill form,
injected directly into muscle, or rubbed on muscle in a cream form. Produced by interaction of hypothalamic, pituitary & gonadal glands
•
Male production=5-10 mg./day
•
Female production = 1-2 mg./day
100% ILLEGAL TO BUY, SELL, OR POSSESS UNLESS VIA A DR’S. PRESCRITION!!!!
Stored in blood – not the glands
Effects on body
–
Anabolic: promotes muscle growth
–
Androgenic: promotes increase in strength
Effects of Anabolic Steroids: Mimics Testosterone
Androgenic Effects :male sex characteristics (want to limit these effects)
Anabolic Effects: increase protein & creatine phosphate synthesis; increase muscle mass; **increase oxygen carrying capacity - not proven
Types of Anabolic Steroids
Endogenous: See hand out
Exogenous: synthetic steroids developed to decrease androgenic effects without affecting anabolic effects. Also modified to prevent 1st pass breakdown in liver
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Oral (short ½ life)
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Injectable (bypass liver)
Modified oral compounds have additional carbon molecule, C-17 alkylated steroids which withstand liver degradation. These are very hard on the liver. Most
injectable steroids are oil based, lipid soluble.
100% ILLEGAL TO BUY, SELL, OR POSSESS UNLESS VIA A DR’S. PRESCRITION!!!!
How do they work? Do they? Yes they work. They bind to receptors in skeletal muscle, prostate, heart, testes, & brain They cause increased protein synthesis & nitrogen
retention which causes increased muscle size and strength & prevent catabolic effects of cortisol by controlling it’s release during intense training
What they may do (+) effects
•
Increase in Muscle size
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Increase in lean muscle mass
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Ability to train more intensely for longer periods of time
Legitimate Medical Use: Hypogonadal men. Burn victims, AIDS patients, severe osteoporosis, breast cancer, malnourishment, adolescent disease
Uses being tested: Injury treatment, male contraception, anti-aging, lowering serum cholesterol
Anabolic Steroids – Sources
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Prescription: the ONLY legal way
•
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anemia, replacement therapy, increase appetite, abnormal protein synthesis
NORMAL dose = 5-10 mg/day
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Veterinarian
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Blackmarket
100% ILLEGAL TO BUY, SELL, OR POSSESS UNLESS VIA A DR’S. PRESCRITION!!!!
How are they taken?
Cycling: take for a period of time and then cycle off before beginning again. Method used to beat drug testing
Stacking: Take more than one at a time trying to achieve synergistic effect
Pyramiding: gradually increase number and amount of compounds to maximize effects and decrease side effects
Oral v. Injection
ORAL: Less detection time, harder on liver and kidneys, fat soluble
INJECTION: longer detection time, liver and kidneys not affected, injected into muscle and spread throughout body
Side Effects:
MEN
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Reduced Sperm Count
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Infertility (Long term)
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Shrinking of Testicles
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High Blood Pressure
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Fluid Retention
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*Development of breasts
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Increased Facial Hair
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Liver Damage (orally)
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*Baldness
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*Prostate enlargement
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Acne
WOMEN
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Increased Facial Hair
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HBP
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*Irregular Menstruation Cycles which can cease w/long term use
•
Deep Voice
* irreversible after prolonged use
Gynecomastia: Development of breasts in males. Expensive procedure to fix. Not just caused by steroids but the use of steroids will greatly increase a person risk of
getting Gynecomastia
Abuse Effects on Both Sexes: severe acne, weakened tendons, ,jaundice, fluid retention, cardiovascular effects
Legal Implications: Anabolic Steroid Act 1990 classified them as controlled substances. Big difference whether charged by state or Feds
Use: 1st offense = 1 yr. jail & $1000 fine, 2nd offense = up to 2 yrs. jail & minimum of $2500 fine.
Selling & distribution
Federal offense


1st offense = up to 5 yrs. jail and $250,000 fine
2nd offense = up to 10 yrs. jail & higher fine
100% ILLEGAL TO BUY, SELL, OR POSSESS UNLESS VIA A DR’S. PRESCRITION!!!!
Drug Testing
Urine test
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Test 1 hr. after announcing test
•
Masking agents – Benemid, Corticosteroids, DHEA, other substances
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T/E Ratio
–
also measure concentration of testosterone and specific gravity
Drug Testing Problems
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Detection of substances that occur naturally in the body is difficult. Also must set standards of sensitivity to accommodate these levels.
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Testosterone / epitestosterone ratio of 6:1 is standard guide but higher ration can occur naturally in 2-3% of population.
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Baseball, NHL, NBA do not ban their use.
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IOC, NCAA, NFL do ban use.
Human Growth Hormone
(Somatotropin)
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Hormone secreted from pituitary gland
•
Effects
–
stimulate protein synthesis
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stimulate growth
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increase muscle mass
–
increase strength of muscles, tendons, etc
Hormone secreted from pituitary gland
Effects
–
stimulate protein synthesis
–
stimulate growth
–
increase muscle mass
–
increase strength of muscles, tendons, etc
Adverse effects
–
acromegaly - large hands & feet
–
abnormal shaped head
–
increase size of heart, liver, kidneys
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increase cholesterol
–
Alternative to steroids
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Cheaper, harder to detect
Growth Hormone Enhancers
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Amino acids (aa) have been used to increase circulating growth hormone (GH) concentrations.
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Strength training increases GH serum concentrations so looking for synergistic effect.
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Most common aa used are arginine, lysine & ornithine
Studies of aa effects
•
Many studies confirm increased GH concentrations after ingestion of arginine & lysine.
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Effects are modified by training level, sex, diet and age.
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High levels produce stomach cramps & diarrhea
•
Women have greater response.
•
People on high protein levels (1.7-2.2 g/kg day) have less effects
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Ingestion right before exercise blunts absorption
Peptide Secretagogues
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Being developed and studied as compounds that stimulate secretion of endogenous GH.
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Studies have all been done on GH deficient patients.
•
No reports of athletes using them but doesn’t mean there isn’t illegal use.
Other GH Releasing Agents
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Clonidine, L-dopa & methylphenidate have been shown to induce GH release.
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L-dopa most commonly used by athletes but no studies have been done on effectiveness but does induce nausea & vomiting.