Download Chapter 12

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Sports injury wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Anabolic Steroids
and
Drug Abuse in Sports
Drugs and Our Society
Part 12
CJUS/HPE 151
Historical Use
1.
2.
Not a recent phenomena
- chemicals used to enhance performance
- old as sports itself
Athlete drug use
- early concoctions made sense
- placebo effect
- just thinking / improves performance
- increase abilities
Historical Use, cont.
3.
4.
No longer believe:
- ground hooves of an ass
- but belief in the powder
- enhance competitor’s self-confidence
- why take chances?
Greek Olympians
- herbs / mushrooms
- pharmaceutical action (stimulant)
Historical Use, cont.
a. Aztec athletes
- cactus based stimulant
- resembled strychnine
b. Competition developed
- tribal societies
- war or hunting
c. Various psychoactive plants
- battles and hunting
Historical Use, cont.
d. Used in sports from beginning
5.
Early use of stimulants
- 1800s / early 1900s
- three types:
a. Strychnine
- rat poison
- CNS stimulant (low doses)
- larger doses = brain seizures
Historical Use, cont.
- convulsions / death
(1) Boxers: increased aggressiveness
- kept from tiring
(2) Thomas Hicks: 1904 Olympics
- collapsed end of marathon
- brandy and strychnine
(3) Amphetamines
Historical Use, cont.
- dangerous drugs less attractive
(4) Strychnine use continued
- world competition into 1960s
b. Cocaine
- available in 1800s
- Mariani’s Coca Wine (French cycle)
- “wine for athletes”
- pure cocaine was adopted (potent)
Historical Use, cont.
c. Caffeine
- coffee as a mild stimulant
- pure caffeine / caffeine tablets
- numerous reports of ‘doping’
- swimmers / cyclists / boxers / runners / etc
6.
Then as now
- suspicion raised by losers
a. Word “dope” applied
- Dutch word used in So. Africa
- cheap brandy
Historical Use, cont.
- given to: race horses / racing dogs
- to slow down
b. From horses to people
- improve performance
- people / animals same substances
- coca wine / cocaine
- before drug testing days
7.
Amphetamines
Historical Use, cont.
- unknown when started (stimulant effect)
- not long after introduction (1930s)
a. Widely used in world
- during WWII
b. 1940s / 1950s: reports of pep pills
- professional soccer players (England /
Italy)
- boxers / cyclists: new energy source
Historical Use, cont.
a. More potent than caffeine
- longer lasting than cocaine
- safer than strychnine
b. Ideal ergogenic drug
- “energy producing”
- both training / competition
8.
1952: Winter Olympics (Oslo)
Historical Use, cont.
- syringes / broken ampoules in speed
skating locker room
- indication: amphetamine presence
a. 1952: Summer Olympics (Helsinki)
- 1956: Melbourne Olympics
- several deaths attributed to drugs
b. 1960: Olympic Games (Rome)
- amphetamine spread to most sports
Historical Use, cont.
- Danish cyclist died / others collapsed
- “sunstroke” aided by amphetamines
- blood flow / to cool body
c. Led to investigation
- anti-doping laws (Belgium / France)
- others, less concerned
9.
International drug testing
- began testing / sporadic / cycling
Historical Use, cont.
a. 1960s: athletes refusing
- failing tests / disqualified
b. Early testing efforts:
- not prevent death of Tommy Simpson
- ex-world cycling champion
- 1967: Tour de France
c. Seen on TV / drugs found in luggage
- two types amphetamines
Historical Use, cont.
10.
1968: IOC – disqualify any who refuse test
- or using banned drugs
a. Started in Mexico City
- fewer than 700 urine tests
b. Each subsequent competition
- more testing
- more disqualifications
- more controversy
Historical Use, cont.
11.
United States / drug usage in sports
- did not seem concerned
- 1960s / 1970s reports: football players
a. Amphetamine use: major change in US
- stay awake / extra energy / lose weight
b. Legal / harmless pep pills
- football teams ordered large quantities
- routine supplies / trainers dispersed
Historical Use, cont.
12.
End of 60s: considered drugs of abuse
- dangerous / violent behavior
a. Players sued NFL
- allowed / required to play
b. 1972: officially banned
- physicians / trainers no longer dispense
- no longer condoned by NFL
- did little to enforce / request copies
Historical Use, cont.
c. Athletes: own physician / illegal means
- NFL: players get them / own business
- not push athletes beyond endurance
d. Current policy:
- restricts use of amphetamines
- other drugs
- no matter where obtained
13.
Steroids
Steroids
- WWII: malnourished people
- gain weight / build up more rapidly
- given male hormone testosterone
a. Testosterone
- male sex hormone
- two major effects
b. Androgenic effects
- masculinizing actions
Steroids, cont.
(1) Growth of reproductive organs
(2) Deepening voice
(3) Increased facial hair
c. Anabolic effects
- promote constructive metabolism
- building tissue
Steroids, cont.
(1) Muscle mass
- arms / legs / stomach / chest
(2) Internal organs
- heart muscle / liver / lungs
(3) Control body fat
- limits throughout body
- reduces around waist
Steroids, cont.
(4) Protein synthesis
- burn more fat
(5) Increase calcium
- stronger bones
14.
1950s: synthesize various steroids
- fewer androgenic effects
- more anabolic
- “anabolic steroids” (none entirely free)
Steroids, cont.
a. Soviet Union: large scale
- build up athletes
- 1956 Olympics: straight testosterone
- excessive doses
- unfortunate side effects
b. Helps men / women become muscular
- masculinity effects on women
- enlarged prostate on men
- both definite drawbacks
Steroids, cont.
c. US team physician:
- help develop / test anabolic steroids
- quickly adopted (weight lifters / body
builders)
d. American / British
- first to acknowledge use
- discus / shotput events
e. Widespread use in 1960s
Steroids, cont.
- throughout track / field
f. Drugs not officially banned
- nor tested for until 1970s
g. 1976 Olympics:
- East German swim coach
- women swimmers have deep voices
- “come to swim / not to sing”
Steroids, cont.
15.
Whether effect or not: CONTROVERSIAL
- medical position: they are not
- lore in locker room was different
a. Anabolic steroids
- make anyone bigger / stronger
- more masculine looking
b. Apparent: more faith in locker room talk
- taking no chances
Steroids, cont.
16.
Physician’s Desk Reference:
- “Anabolic steroids have not been shown
to enhance athletic ability.”
a. Tell to Ben Johnson (Canadian - 1988)
- record in 100 meter run
- or competitors
b. Testosterone has tremendous effect on
muscle mass during puberty
Steroids, cont.
c. What is not so clear: the impact of
- additional anabolic stimulation
- adolescent / adult males
- have normal circulating levels
1.
REGULATION
- drug produces: dependence / violent crime /
toxic side effects
- justification to place restrictions
Regulation, cont.
a. 1988: Congressional Hearings
- place on controlled substances list
b. Evidence presented:
- large black market ($100 million year)
- concern for youth (more ‘macho’)
c. 1990: Omnibus Crime Control Act
- listed under Schedule III
- controlled substance
Regulation, cont.
- required more record keeping
- limited refills
2.
Psychological effects
- on-going research
a. Certain beneficial effects
- increases amount of work in training
- increases intensity of effort in games
Psychological Effects, cont.
b. Negative effects
- stimulant-like high
- increased aggressiveness (beneficial?)
- psychological dependence (depressed)
- “roid rage”
3.
Adverse effects on body
- many concerns about use
a. Not achieve full height
Adverse Effects, cont.
- premature closing of growth plates of
long bones
- limits adult height
b. Cysts on liver
- high blood pressure / heart disease
4.
Other dietary supplements
a. Androstenedione
Dietary Supplements, cont.
- dietary supplement
- acts as metabolic precursor to
testosterone
- available as ‘ergogenic agent’
b. Mark McGwire
- 1998 hitting season (70 home runs)
- used this supplement (legal)
c. No other sport allows except baseball