Download Case Report: Congenital sub mitral left ventricle aneurysm with

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Quantium Medical Cardiac Output wikipedia, lookup

Myocardial infarction wikipedia, lookup

Jatene procedure wikipedia, lookup

Cardiac surgery wikipedia, lookup

Lutembacher's syndrome wikipedia, lookup

Coronary artery disease wikipedia, lookup

Management of acute coronary syndrome wikipedia, lookup

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia wikipedia, lookup

Electrocardiography wikipedia, lookup

Heart failure wikipedia, lookup

Ventricular fibrillation wikipedia, lookup

Mitral insufficiency wikipedia, lookup

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy wikipedia, lookup

Cardiac contractility modulation wikipedia, lookup

Cardiothoracic surgery wikipedia, lookup

Artificial heart valve wikipedia, lookup

Aortic stenosis wikipedia, lookup

Echocardiography wikipedia, lookup

Pericardial heart valves wikipedia, lookup

Marfan syndrome wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
International J. of Healthcare and Biomedical Research, Volume: 04, Issue: 01, October 2015, Pages 174-178
Case Report:
Congenital sub mitral left ventricle aneurysm with normal mitral
valve - A rare presentation
Dr. Santosh Kumar Pandey1*, Dr.SubhenduSekhar Mahapatra1, Dr.Uttam Kumar
Mukhopadhyay1, Dr.Swarnendu Datta1, Dr.suruchi Pandey2, Dr.Gautham Shetty1,
Dr.Debajyoti Mandal1
1Department
of Cardiothoracic and vascular sciences, IPGME&R and SSKM Hospital,Kolkata,West Bengal, India zip
code 700020.
2Department
of cardiology, RTIICS, Mukundapur, Kolkata, West Bengal.
*Corresponding
author: Dr.Santosh Kumar Pandey, Mch – PDT, Department of Cardiothoracic and vascular
sciences,IPGME&R and SSKM Hospital,Kolkata,West Bengal, India- 700020.
Abstract
Submitral Left Ventricular Aneurysm (SMLVA) is an unusual, non-ischemic Left Ventricular (LV) Aneurysm. SMLVA is
rarely reported in Indian subcontinent. It is most commonly found in Black population, among the natives of south and West
Africa.SMLVA is basically a congenital out-pouching of the LV wall occurring adjacent to the posterior leaflet of Mitral
Valve2. It is typically diagnosed in young adults, presenting mostly with features of Mitral regurgitation, congestive heart
failure, systemicembolization, arrhythmia and sometimes sudden death. But in our case mitral valve was almost normal and
the patient presented with progressive worsening dyspnoea,palpitation and occasional chest pain secondary to gradual
decline in ejection fraction .His coronary angiogram was normal. Differential diagnosis of SMLVA must be kept in mind
when a young individual present with features of progressive LV dysfunction though it is rare.
Key words: Submitral left ventricular aneurysm, LV dysfunction, congenital.
Introduction
Few case of SMA has been reported in Caucasians
Sub Mitral Left Ventricular aneurysm is an
in which all presented with significant Mitral
uncommon
regurgitation.
cardiac
lesion
with
very
little
description in the Indian literature. In 1962
Abrahams etal
1
reported 12 patients with an
Our patient is a rare presentation of a large SMA
without involvement of Mitral Valve Apparatus.
unusual form of Left Ventricular aneurysm from
He
Nigeria and other African countries and they
occasional chest pain and palpitation. Our case
termed as “Annular Subvalvular left ventricle
emphasise on considering a differential diagnosis
aneurysm”. The anatomy of mitral valve annulus is
of SMA in young adult presenting with features of
such that its 2/3 portion is related to posterior
low ejection fraction or LV dysfunction.
leaflet which is attached to LV myocardium
The typical location of the aneurysm with normal
3
presented
with
progressive
dyspnoea,
through annular ring . A weakness or disruption of
coronaries on angiography confirms the diagnosis
this muscular–fibrous union results in occurrence
of SMLVA. Surgical correction is mandatory to
of submitral aneurysm below mitral leaflet. Cases
treat the cardiac failure secondary to increasing size
of SMLVA has been reported from all parts of the
of the aneurysm and to prevent the potential
4,5
world but very few from Indian subcontinent .
cardiovascular events.
174
www.ijhbr.com
ISSN: 2319-7072
International J. of Healthcare and Biomedical Research, Volume: 04, Issue: 01, October 2015, Pages 174-178
Case Report
A 23 years young male presented to our department
with progressive worsening dyspnoea for last 1 ½
years associated with occasional chest pain and
palpitation. There was no past history of rheumatic
fever, any episode of syncopal attack, asthma or
Tuberculosis.
No
family
history
of
any
cardiovascular disease. On examination he had
heart rate of 110 per minute, regular rate and
rhythm, Blood pressure of 90/60mmHg, JVP was
raised and had pedal oedema. The apex was in the
th
6 left intercostal space,2 cm outside the mid
Fig 1:- Showing relatively small LV with a large
aneurysmal sac (AN)
clavicular line. On auscultation, soft S1 and Left
ventricular S3 were present. Chest auscultation
revealed bilateral basal crepitation. All peripheral
pulses were bilaterally and equally palpable. ECG
showed evidence of sinus tachycardia, Chest X- ray
revealed cardiomegaly with evidence of pulmonary
venous
congestion.
Echocardiography
finding
revealed normalsize Right and left atrium. Right
ventricular outflow tract was also normal in
size.Left ventricle was dilated(60mm) with a large
aneurysm,present in the inferior wall in submitral
position. Mitral valve, Tricuspid valve and Aortic
valve were normal with significant reduction of
Fig.2- Showing normal angiogram.
ejection fraction (<30%), Interventricular septum
He
was normal and moderate pericardial effusion was
Conventional
present.
Cardiopulmonary bypass was achieved by aortic
Cardiac MRI was done which shows normal LA
and bicaval cannulation. The aorta was cross
and LV was relatively small. LV shows a large
clamped
saccular defect in the inferior wall, in submitral
myocardial protection was provided with cold
region. The saccular lesion measures 6.1x4.5x4.0
blood antegrade root cardioplegia.We found dense
cm with a neck measuring 4.4cm in diameter. The
adhesion between the sac andpericardium.We
angiogram is suggestive of normal coronaries.
approached through left atrium. Mitral valve was
was
planned
median
under
for
surgical
sternotomy
moderate
correction.
was
hypothermia
done.
and
assessed after opening left atrium which was
normal. The aneurysm was approached from
outside(external approach). Aneurysm was opened,
the clots and debris was removed, and excess wall
of the aneurysm was excised keeping healthy LV
margins. The ‘neck’ of the aneurysm was closed
with interrupted pledgetted 3–0 Polypropylene
175
www.ijhbr.com
ISSN: 2319-7072
International J. of Healthcare and Biomedical Research, Volume: 04, Issue: 01, October 2015, Pages 174-178
horizontal mattress sutures in such a way that, the
sutures goes through the neck of the aneurysm and
through the posterior mitral annulus. The defect in
the left ventricle was narrowed down with 2–0
Polypropylene purse string suture and the defect
was
closed
Polypropylene
with
PTFE
interrupted
Felt
using
pledgetted
2–0
sutures.
Mitral valve was tested and was found to be
competent. Left atrium was closed directly.
Intraoperative pictures:
Fig.5-The aneurysmal sac being opened and the
clots and debris removed.
Fig.3- Showing dense adhesion of the sac with the
pericardium.
Fig.6-The neck of the sac being closed with PTFE
graft.
Fig.4-The aneurysmal sac is separated with a patch
of pericardium which could not be separated.
Fig.7- The aneurysmal sac cut edge being closed.
Postoperative echocardiography was done which
shows normal mitral valve with no gradient across
176
www.ijhbr.com
ISSN: 2319-7072
International J. of Healthcare and Biomedical Research, Volume: 04, Issue: 01, October 2015, Pages 174-178
the valve. Patient was discharged in stable
absence of coronary artery disease on angiography
condition after 7 days. He was followed up after 3
confirm the diagnosis of SMLVA. Surgical
months with echo which suggest no mitral
treatment is mandatory as soon as the diagnosis of
regurgitation and ejection fraction of 51%.
SLVA is made, in order to treat the cardiac failure
Discussion
that arises from expansion of the aneurysm and to
LV aneurysm is more common occurrence in post
avoid other potential cardiovascular events. The
myocardial
inherent
infarction
patients.Submitral
Left
Ventricular Aneurysm (SMLVA) is a rare lesion
1
that occurs most often in the blacks and still rarest
4,5
difficulties
extracardiac
associated
approach
with
included
the
inadequate
exposure of the mitral annulus, residual mitral
in Indian population . The prevalence of this
regurgitation,
lesion among blacks appears to indicate a
approaching the aneurysm due to adhesions.
6
congenital predisposition .
Antunes described the transatrial approach in
SMLVA is basically a congenital outpouching of
19872. We approached through both extra and intra
the LV wall occurring adjacent to the posterior
cardiac approach. Surgical failure can be related to
2
and
technical
difficulties
in
leaflet of Mitral Valve .It is typically diagnosed in
the failure to identify additional aneurysm necks or
young adults,presenting mostly with features of
inadequate closure of the aneurysm and lack of
Mitral
heart
support to the mitral annulus leading to recurrent
and
aneurysm formation. Successful repair is dependent
regurgitation,
failure,systemic
congestive
embolization,arrhythmia
sometimes sudden death. Submitral left ventricular
on
aneurysm seems to be caused by a junctional defect
relationship between the aneurysm, the mitral valve
between the cardiac muscle and the fibrous
and its annulus. If mitral regurgitation is associated
2
the
appropriate
under-standing
of
the
structure of the heart . The anatomy of mitral valve
with aneurysm then it is advisable to do mitral ring
annulus is such that its 2/3 portion is related to
annuloplasty than direct suturing to prevent
posterior
recurrence
leaflet
which
is
attached
to
LV
of
regurgitation.
Mitral
Valve
myocardium through annular ring. A weakness or
Replacement (MVR) is one more option in cases
disruption of this muscular–fibrous union results in
where mitral valve leaflets are distorted or
occurrence of submitral aneurysm below mitral
damaged and when it is non-repairable. Also the
3
leaflet . Clinical symptoms arise as a result of
mitral valve replacement may be an option in cases
valvular
of postoperative severe mitral regurgitation.
regurgitation
compression
of
or
cardiac
occasionally
structures
by
from
the
2
Conclusion
aneurysmal sac or patient can be asymptomatic for
SMLVA is very rare cardiac lesion in Indian
many years5].In our patient mitral valve was
subcontinent. The patient may not always present
almost normal and the patient presented with
with symptoms of mitral regurgitation but with a
progressive worsening dyspnoea,palpitation and
normal mitral valve, as in our case. . Differential
occasional chest pain secondary to gradual decline
diagnosis of SMLVA must be kept in mind when a
in ejection fraction..]. Diagnosis by chest x ray is
young
easy if calcification is present in the aneurysm
progressive LV dysfunction though it is rare.
7
wall .
Now
days,
the
transthoracic
echocardiography is the most accurate diagnostic
individual
present
with
features
of
Echocardiography is sufficient to make the
diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice.
8
tool . The typical location of the aneurysm and the
177
www.ijhbr.com
ISSN: 2319-7072
International J. of Healthcare and Biomedical Research, Volume: 04, Issue: 01, October 2015, Pages 174-178
Acknowledgment : I am very thankful to the
Professor S. Bhattacharya and Professor Gautam
cardiology department of our institute for their
Sengupta encouraged us to prepare this case report.
prompt support. Our head of the department Dr.
Conflict of Interest: There is no conflict of
interest.
References
1.
Abrahams DG, Barton CJ, Cockshott WP, Edington GM, Weaver EJ. Annular subvalvular left ventricular
aneurysm. Q J Med. 1962;31:345–60.
2.
Antunes MJ. Submitral left ventricular aneurysms. Correction by a new transatrial approach. J
ThoracCardiovascSurg 1987; 94: 241-245.
3.
Chesler E, Mitha AS, Edwards JE. Congenital aneurysms adjacent to the annuli of the aortic and/or mitral
valves. Chest 1982; 82: 334-337
4.
Chockalingam A, Gnanavelu G, Alagesan R, Subramaniam T. Congenital submitral aneurysm.
Echocardiography 2004; 21: 325-328
5.
Sharma S, Daxini BV, Loya YS. Profile of Submitral Left Ventricular Aneurysm in Indian Patients. IHJ
1990; 42:153-6.
6.
Beck W, Schrire V. Idiopathic mitral sub annular left ventricular aneurysm in the Bantu. Am Heart J.
1969;78:28–33
7.
Szarnicki RJ, De Leval MR, Stark J. Calcified left ventricular aneurysm in 6-year-old Caucasian boy. Br
Heart J. 1981;45:464–6.
8.
Davis MD, Caspi A, Lewis BS, Milner S, Colsen PR, Barlow JB. Two-dimensional echocardiographic
features of submitral left ventricular aneurysm. Am Heart J. 1982;103:289–90.
178
www.ijhbr.com
ISSN: 2319-7072