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Transcript
Ancient Greece
Respectively Submitted
Gloucester Township Schools
C. Stephen Ingraham
2009
Social Studies Block # ____ Name ________________________________
Mr. Ingraham & Mrs. Ross
Date _____________________
Ancient Greece Table of Contents
1)Greece Song
2)Map of Greece
3) Mountains & the Sea
4) Minoans & Myceneans
Chapter 7 Ancient Greece Song
You take the Minoans / On the island of Crete
They were seafaring traders / They were peaceful and sweet
They traded olive oil, wool, and pottery.
That’s what they’re all about! –(clap).
Chorus:
Tragedies are serious
Comedies are humorous,
Democracy is for us,
Greek culture is all about us! -(Clap, Clap).
You take the Mycenaeans / On the mountainous pelopennesus
They were a warlike people / Their wealth was a weapon census.
They borrowed writing, customs, and religious beliefs.
When they invaded Crete. –(clap).
They tell of Homer’s epic poem / about the beautiful Helen,
Who was kidnapped to Troy / all the Greeks started yelling.
They fought for ten years, then tried the Trojan horse trick
That’s the only way they could win. –(clap).
Sung to the tune of the Hokey Pokey
The city-state of Sparta / was afraid of their slaves.
So at seven boys & girls / left for camp with many a waves
To live and die with honor was the Spartan way
Obedience is what it’s all about. –(clap).
Chorus:
Tragedies are serious
Comedies are humorous,
Democracy is for us,
Greek culture is all about us! -(Clap, Clap).
In the city-state of Athens / 20 year old males could vote,
But no women or slaves. / They could only carry and tote.
Democracy, majority rule, Pericles, and Herodotus.
Hippocrates says illness is all about us. –(clap).
The Persians set out / to conquer everything in sight,
But the Greeks wouldn’t give up / and united for a fight.
Both Darius and son, Xerxes both did try.
Many Persians had to die. –(clap).
Alexander’s father died / so Macedonia wasn’t so great.
To conquer the known world / would be Alexander’s fate.
Around the Mediterranean he never lost a battle.
Spreading Greek culture all about. –(clap)
Sung to the tune of the Hokey Pokey
Chapter 7 Ancient Greece Song continued
Essential Questions – Greece
•What forms of government existed in Ancient Greece?
•How is citizenship a key concept in the development of
civilizations?
•What skills must citizens have to effectively participate in
their democracy?
•How are the government structures of Western Civilizations
based on the
• political forms developed in Ancient Greece?
•What socioeconomic and social class differences were
evident in Ancient Greece?
•How were women viewed and treated in Ancient Greece?
•What evidence of Ancient Greek influence exists today?
•How does war change a civilization?
•What role did Greek gods and goddesses play in daily life?
•How did the Minoan and Mycenaean people influence later
Greek cultures?
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•What causes a civilization to decline?
The Vocabulary of Greece #1
isthmus – a narrow strip of land connecting two larger areas
of land.
cultural borrowing – adapting customs from one culture for
use in another.
polis – a Greek city-state.
acropolis – a walled fortress.
agora – an open-air market and gathering place.
cultural identity – the connection that people of the same
culture feel with one another.
epics – long story poems.
myth – a story passed down about an ancient god or hero.
tragedies – serious plays in which the main character comes
to an unhappy end.
comedies – humorous plays making fun of political leaders
or traditional ideas.
Olympics – an athletic competition held every four years to
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honor the god Zeus.
Government Terms Vocabulary #2
tyrant – someone who took control of a government by force
and ruled alone.
aristocracy – wealthy ruling class.
assembly – a group of lawmakers who make decisions for the
whole community.
oligarchy - a small ruling group of lawmakers who make all the
decisions.
Democracy – a system of rule by the people in making
community decisions.
majority rule – allows decisions to become law when one more
than half agree.
leagues – groups of friends or allies.
demagogues – bad leaders who make promises they couldn’t
keep or led others into making foolish decisions.
alliances – agreements between governments or city-states to
help one another.
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Steps to Civilization
Hunters
1) Nomads
2) Band (clan)
3) culture
4) tribe
5) Civilization
Gatherers
Farmers
(agriculture)
CIVILIZATION a culture that has well
developed: a) Government
b) Religion
c) Learning (knowledge)
d) Writing
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CSI07
I.
Chapter 7 Ancient Greece
The Early People of Greece
A. Mountains and the Sea
1. Greece is on the large Balkan __________________, which is a piece of
land that is almost completely surrounded by water.
2. Present day Greece and Turkey are separated by an island filled
arm of the Mediterranean Sea called the ______________________ Sea.
3. The Southern half of the Balkan Peninsula is called the
Peloponnesus and is connected to the mainland by an _____________,
or a small, narrow strip of land between two larger areas of land.
4. Greece’s other physical features:
a) Greece has a dry climate.
b) Three-fourth of Greece is rugged mountains.
c) Greece has a thin layer of rocky soil.
5. Greek farmers grow olives, grapes, and wheat; they also raise sheep,
goats, pigs, and cattle.
6. Each mountain village became ________________________, because the
rugged land makes travel difficult and trade almost impossible.
7. Since the Greeks live along the Mediterranean coast, they become
fishermen, sailors, and merchants. They have little natural resources
so they exchange olive oil, wool, and wine for what they needed.
The Earliest Greeks
Minoans (Earliest Greek)
* Island of Crete
* Sea Faring Traders – olive oil, wool, and wine
* Peaceful
Mycenaeans
*Peloponnesus – Southern Balkan Peninsula
* Warlike – invaded Crete
* borrowed Writing, Customs, & Religious beliefs
* Homer – Trojan War – “Iliad” & “Odyssey”
C.
Greek
Cultural
Identity
Ancient Stories and Legends ( Pages 214-5)
1. The poet Homer wrote long story-poems called ________________________.
2. The epic “The Iliad” talks about the great _____________________ War.
3. The epic “The Odyssey” talks about a hero’s return home after the war.
4. The Trojan War was a war of honor fought over the beautiful Greek princess
Helen, who was kidnapped by Paris, a prince from the city of _______________.
The Greeks won only by tricking the Trojans by hiding in a large wooden horse.
D. To be “Greek” ( Pages 220-1 )
1. Greek identified with their city-state not their country of Greece.
2. Greeks had a __________________ ___________________, or a
connection to other Greeks.
a) They called themselves Hellenes, or decedents of a common ancestor Hellen.
This _____________, or ancient story, said that Hellen alone survived a great
flood long ago.
b) They had a common Language, ________________________, and
religious beliefs. (Zeus and other gods controlled daily events.)
c) Every four years each city-states competed in the Olympic games to honor
their main god Zeus.
II.
City-State and Greek Culture
A. The Rise of the Greek City-States
1. Around 800 B.C . the Greeks had progressed from small
settlement villages to towns. The towns began to join with
nearby villages and farms to form a ________________,or city-state.
2. To protect themselves from invaders the Greek communities
build walled fortresses on hill tops known as an ______________.
3. The center of daily life contained houses, temples, and
_______________________________ called an agora.
4. Early Greek city states were ruled by a king or ______________,
someone who took control of government by force and ruled alone.
5. Later the richest men shared the authority with their king. This
wealthy ruling class of landowners and merchants were known
as the __________________.
6. This ruling class met in an _____________________ to make
decisions and laws for the whole community.
7. Normally a Polis had fewer than 5,000 people. When the
population became to large the city-state would set up _________
to avoid over crowding.
Thrace
Macedonia
Mt. Olympus *
Aegean Sea
*Chalcis
*Delphi
Ionian
Thebes*
Sea
*Mytilene
Asia
Minor
*Phocaea
Athens
Pylos *
Kythira *
Mediterranean Sea
Sparta
Crete
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B. Sparta
1. The Spartans, the descendants of the Dorians believed simple life
should be filled with _____________________and ____________.
2. Military strength controlled the city-state.
a) At the age of seven children were taken away from their
parents and put in training camps.
b) The Girls returned home after a few years, but the boys
trained for war until the age of ________________.
c) After that men could marry and have a family, but they
served in the army until the age of 60.
3. Spartan thinking.
a) Obey without question
b) Never give up: fight to the death.
c) To lose is a disgrace.
d) To die defending Sparta is the greatest honor.
4. Spartan Women had few rights. They ran the home, handled
business, and owned land. (2/5 of all land in Sparta).
5. Spartan Government was weak.
a) They had two kings who had power in time of war.
b) an assembly of five ____________, or wealthy land owners.
c) This _________________, or small ruling group made all
decisions in Sparta.
II.
City-State and Greek Culture
C. Athens
1. Athens was the main city-state in Attica ( the southern uplands).
2. Athens was different from Sparta.
a) Young men served in the army only in time of war.
b) People were encouraged to take part in community decisions.
c) Every free adult male over 20 was considered a ___________.
d) They took part in the assembly called the ________________.
e) All citizens got one vote.
f) All decisions were made by majority rule, or ______________
____________________________________________________.
g) Women were not citizens. They could not take part in
government or own land, but they did manage the family
budget and the household.
3. The Athenian government’s encouragement of civic
participation grew into a system of __________________, or rule
by the people.
4. However women, and slaves (1/3 the people of Athens ) were
not citizens and had no vote.
Athenian Democracy
Participatory Citizenship
Aegean Sea
Spartan Oligarchy
Small ruling group
Assembly of 500
They set the agenda of
For the next meeting.
Assembly of Citizens
King
All free 20 year old males
can vote.
All decisions are made by
majority rule
Women & slaves were
not considered citizens
King
Assembly – 5 Ephors
*
Wealthy Land owners
made all decisions
Citizens
*
All free 30 year old males
Women & slaves were
not considered citizens
Mediterranean Sea
CSI08
III.
The Golden Age of Athens
A. The Persian Wars
1. Around 499 B.C. Persia set out to take over ___________ and this
common enemy stopped the fighting among the Greek
city-states.
2. The Persians claimed all of North Africa and soon captured the
Greek Colonies in Asia Minor.
3. In 490 the Persian King _______________ turned towards Athens,
because Athens had tried to help the colonies fight the Persians.
4. The Athenians defeat the Persians on the plain of ____________.
5. Later Darius’s son, _______________, sends 200,000 soldiers
and 800 ships to attack Greece.
6. An outnumbered, but united Greek army and navy meets the
Persians. The Navy defeats the Persians off the island of Salamis.
7. Fearing future attacks by other invaders the Greek city-states
band together forming __________________, or groups of allies.
a) Sparta leads the Peloponnesian League.
b) Athens leads the Delian League.
Persian Wars
Aegean Sea
Invasion of
King Xerxes
480 BCE
Thermopylae 480 BCE
Persia
Asia
Minor
Marathon 490 BCE
*
Plataea 479 BCE
Salamis 480 BCE
*Sparta
Mediterranean Sea
Sardis
*Athens
Invasion of
King Darius
490 BCE
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III.B. The Golden Age
The Golden Age of Athens
1. The great pride after defeating the ______________________
began a time of achievement known as the Golden Age.
2. ______________ a wealthy member of the aristocracy led Athens.
a) An assembly of 1000 men voted in Athens
b) The Council of _____________ decided on what was discussed.
c) All men should vote not just the wealthy.
d) Public officials and ______________ were paid a salary.
e) “No one is prevented from service to the city-state”.
C. Achievements of the Golden Age
1. Pericles had government support for the ___________________
and ____________________________.
2. Artists, scholars, architects, and builders came to Athens.
3. Famous Greek Writers in Athens.
a) Herodotus – wrote histories.
b) Sophocles - wrote _________________________, or serious
plays where the hero meets an unhappy ending.
c) Aristophanes – wrote ____________________________, or
humorous plays making fun of traditional ideas or leaders.
4. Scientist, Hippocrates, was a doctor who said illnesses came
_______________________________________________________
and was not the punishment of the gods.
III.
The Golden Age of Athens
D. End of the Golden Age
1. In 431 B.C.E. The ___________________________ War broke out
between Athens and Sparta. It lasted 27 years.
2. When Sparta attacks many fled to Athens and overcrowding
causes sickness and disease (Pericles & 1/4 of the city die.)
3. The people follow ______________, or bad leaders who make
promises they could not keep or convince the people to make
foolish decisions.
4. In 404 B.C. Athens surrenders. Sparta replaces the assembly
with an __________________ like its own government.
5. Great thinkers and teachers still lived in Athens.
a) _____________ – taught by asking questions of his students.
The government forced him to drink poison.
b) _____________ - In 385 B.C. started a school called the
“Academy”. He said, “Philosophers, or lovers of wisdom,
would be the best leaders.”
c) __________________- was interested in how things were.
He studies law, economics, astronomy, and sports.
IV.A. Conquest of Greece
Alexander’s Great Empire
1. After the Peloponnesian War, the distrusting Greek city-states
formed ___________________, or agreements which did not last.
2. In the North in a united Macedonia, King Philip admired Greece
and he hired the Greek Philosopher Aristotle to teach his son,
________________________________.
3. By 338 B.C. Macedonian soldiers controlled most of the Greek
peninsula including Sparta and Athens.
4. Under King Philip’s rule the Greek city-states managed
themselves, however the Greeks were not allowed to fight among
themselves.
B. Building an Empire
1. In 336 B.C. 20 year old __________________________ became
King and he wanted to ___________________________________.
2. In 334 B.C. her led 35,000 men into Asia Minor against Persia.
3 . Alexander easily conquered the former Greek colonies under
Persian control. They welcome him and the changes he brought.
4. Alexander the Great spread Greek Culture, language, religion,
and art. Greek influence became so strong that this period in
history is known as the _________________, or “Greek-like”, Age.
5. Alexander ruled a ____________________________ empire, or an
empire of many cultures.
IV.
Alexander’s Great Empire
D. Alexander’s Legacy
1. Hellenistic culture shaped the peoples of Alexander’s empire
for centuries.
2. Greek teachers and thinkers worked out new ideas in
mathematics.
a) Euclid studied lines and angles and began the study of
_________________________________________.
b) Archimedes used mathematics to build many useful
____________________________________________.
c) Aristarchus used mathematics to discover that the
__________________ and other _____________________
moved around the sun.
d) Other Hellenistic scientists added knowledge of medicine to
the discoveries of Hippocrates.
3. By 146 B.C. another group of people, the ___________________
gained control of the Mediterranean world. They borrowed
from the religion, art, architecture, philosophy, and language
of the Greeks.
EUROPE
ASIA
ASIA
MINOR
*Pella
*Sardis
* Athens
Persia
* Sparta
Mediterranean Sea
Syria
AFRICA
Egypt
CSI07
Aegean Sea
Performance Assessment
Greek Time Capsule - Students will research
Asia
Minor
and identify 10 Greek achievements that have
had a lasting influence to our civilization. They
will place symbols of those achievements in a
time capsule to share with the class. This time
capsule should include the symbols, an explanation
of each symbol and provide evidence showing it has
Passed the “test of time” (there is proof of this
achievement in American culture). Examples of
student time capsules can include a
shoebox or other container approved by the teacher.
Mediterranean Sea
CSI08
Performance Assessment Greek Time Capsule – 10 Achievements
1. Achievement:
Importance
Today
2. Achievement:
Importance
Today
3. Achievement:
Importance
Today
4. Achievement:
Importance
Today
5. Achievement:
Importance
Today
6. Achievement:
Importance
Today
7. Achievement:
Importance
Today
8. Achievement:
Importance
Today
9. Achievement:
Importance
Today
10. Achievement:
Importance
Today
Mediterranean Sea
Aegean Sea
Asia
Minor
CSI08
Time Line Practice pp.204-5
1.) Which came first the Roman Empire was
established or Julius Caesar leads an army
across the Rubicon?
2.) Which came first the Mycenaean invasion of
Crete or the Trojan War?
3.) How long ago did Greek city-state begin to
form?
4.) When did Alexander’s great empire reach it
greatest size?
5) Which came last The Roman Republic or the
Roman Empire?
Time Line Practice #2 pp. 204-5
Directions: Find the dates and complete the sentence by writing either
“before” or “after”.
1.) The Roman Republic came ____ the Roman
Empire.
2.) Alexander lived ______ Julius Caesar.
3.) The Trojan War came ______ the
Mycenaean invasion of Crete.
Directions: Do the math to answer these questions.
4.) How many years after Mycenaean invasion
of Crete did Mycenae decline?
5.) How many years before Christianity was
accepted did the Roman Republic begin?
Time Line Test #3 pp.148-9
Directions: Correctly answer these questions.
1.) Which came first The Persians conquer the Babylonians or the
Chandragupta Maurya unites Northern India?
2.) How long ago did the Chandragupta Maurya united Northern India?
3.) How long ago was paper invented?
4.) Which happen last the Aryan Migrations or the birth of Confucius?
5.) How many years after the Shi Huangdi unites China was paper invented?
6.) After India was united, how many years later was China united?
Directions: Complete these sentences using the words “Before” or “After
“correctly.
7.) Trade from China reaches the Mediterranean region _______ paper was
invented.
8.) Confucius lived _________ The Shi Huangdi.
9.) Confucius was born _______ The Zhou claim the Mandate of Heaven.
10.) __________ Shi Huangdi unites China, Chandragupta Maurya united
Northern India.
Prediction: (India)
Asoka Maurya will be a cruel ruler.
Why does this prediction
seem correct?
What Actually Happened
Why does this prediction
not seem correct?
Prediction: (China)
The Qin Shi Haungdi will be
remembered as a great ruler.
Why does this prediction
seem correct?
What Actually Happened
Why does this prediction
not seem correct?
Prediction: (Egypt)
The Egyptian belief in mummification and the
afterlife will result in the tombs of the pharaoh
to be undisturbed.
Why does this prediction
seem correct?
What Actually Happened
Why does this prediction
not seem correct?
Prediction: (Mesopotamia)
Hammurabi’s code of 282 laws will be soon
forgotten after his death.
Why does this prediction
seem correct?
What Actually Happened
Why does this prediction
not seem correct?
Thrace
Aegean Sea
*Troy
Balkan
Peninsula
Asia
Minor
Ionian
Sea
Mediterranean Sea
Crete
CSI07
II.
City-State and Greek Culture
(pp. 220-1)
D. To be “Greek”.
1. Greek identified with their city-state not their country of Greece.
2. Greeks had a __________________ ___________________, or a
connection to other Greeks.
a) They called themselves Hellenes, or decedents of a
common ancestor Hellen. This _____________, or ancient
story, said that Hellen alone survived a great flood long
ago.
b) They had a common Language, ________________________,
and religious beliefs. (Zeus and other gods controlled daily
events.)
c) Every four years each city-states competed in the
Olympic games to honor their main god Zeus.
I.
The Early People of Greece
B. The Minoans
1. The Island of ________________ is 60 miles south of
the Peloponnesus. About 1900 B.C. the Minoans
built huge buildings called palaces. The largest
was three stories high in the city of _____________.
2. The Minoans were named after their legendary
King ___________. If he is a real person he ruled
sometime between 1750- 1550 B.C.
3. Since they lived on an island, the Minoans became
seafaring traders. They traded olive oil, wine, wool,
pottery, and other goods for copper, tin, and gold.
4. They were the first to mix copper and tin to create
bronze.
I.
The Early People of Greece
C. The Mycenaeans
1. The Mycenaeans lived near the coast in the
mountainous _________________. They were a
warlike people who measured wealth by the number
of _____________________ they owned.
2. Through cultural borrowing with the Minoans the
Mycenaeans adapted the customs, art styles, and
pottery designs. They changed Minoan writing to
fit their language and borrowed some religious
beliefs.
3. In 1450 B.C. after the Minoan kingdom was destroyed
the Mycenaeans invaded the Island of Crete.
4. No one knows what happened to weaken the
Mycenaeans:
a) __________ warriors burned palaces and villages.
b) They might have been conquered by a seafaring
people.
I.
The Early People of Greece
D. Ancient Stories and Legends
1. The poet Homer wrote long story-poems called
_______________________________.
2. The epic “The Iliad” talks about the great __________
War.
3. The epic “The Odysseus” talks about a hero’s return
home after the war.
4. The Trojan War was a war of honor fought over the
beautiful Greek princess Helen, who was kidnapped
by Paris, a prince from the city of _______________.
The Greeks won only by tricking the Trojans by
hiding in a large wooden horse.
IV.
Alexander’s Great Empire
B. Building an Empire
1. In 336 B.C. 20 year old __________________________ became
King.
2. Alexander wanted to ____________________________________
______________________________________________________.
3. In 334 B.C. Alexander led 35,000 men into Asia Minor against
Persia.
4. Alexander easily conquered the former Greek colonies under
Persian control. They welcome Alexander and the changes he
brought.
5. Alexander the Great spread Greek Culture, language, religion,
and art. Greek influence became so strong that this period in
history is known as the ____________________, or “Greek-like”,
Age.
6. Alexander ruled a ____________________________ empire, or an
empire of many cultures.
7. By 331 B.C. this empire stretched from the Danube River in
Europe to the Nile River in Africa and East beyond the Tigris and
Euphrates rivers in Asia.
III.
The Golden Age of Athens
C. Achievements of the Golden Age
1. Pericles had government support for the ___________________
and ____________________________.
2. Athens was to become “the School of Greece”.
3. Artists, scholars, architects, and builders were encourage to
come to Athens.
4. Famous Greek Writers in Athens.
a) Herodotus – wrote histories.
b) Sophocles - wrote _________________________, or serious
plays where the hero meets an unhappy ending.
c) Aristophanes – wrote ____________________________, or
humorous plays making fun of traditional ideas or leaders.
5. Scientist, Hippocrates, was a doctor who said illnesses came
_______________________________________________________
and was not the punishment of the gods.
IV.
Alexander’s Great Empire
C. The Breakup of the Empire
1. Alexander wanted to conquer _______________, but his soldiers
refused to follow him into the Ganges River Valley.
2. Disappointed Alexander returned to Babylon in 326 B.C.
3. Alexander died months before his 33rd birthday.
4. No one was strong enough to replace Alexander the Great. His
empire broke into three parts: Macedonia, Syria, and Egypt.
SPARTA
ATHENS
pp. 217-218
Aegean Sea
pp. 219-220
Athens
Sparta
Mediterranean Sea
CSI08
Aegean Sea
Asia
Minor
Mediterranean Sea
CSI08