EARTHQUAKE NOTES 8.E.5B.3 EARTHQUAKE NOTES: STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: define problems that may be caused by a catastrophic event resulting from plate movements and design possible devices or solutions to minimize the effects of that event on Earth’s surface and/or human structures. WHAT IS AN EARTHQUAKE? ______________________ are vibrations produced when rocks break along a _______________. The term earthquake describes the sudden slip on a fault and includes the ground shaking and radiating ___________________ that is caused by the slip. ____________________________, or other geologic processes, may cause stress changes in the earth that can also result in an earthquake. ______________________ and __________________ (tension, compression, and shearing) along faults can build up as blocks of rock are pushed (compression or shearing) or pulled apart (tension). If the __________________________ or stress becomes too great, the rock breaks at a _________________________point along the fault and __________________ _____ is released. Most earthquakes and volcanic eruptions do not strike randomly but occur in specific areas such as along _________________________________ . For example, the Ring of Fire where the Pacific Plate interacts with many surrounding plates, is known as one of the most seismically and volcanically active zones in the world. PARTS OF AN EARTHQUAKE An earthquake begins along a ____________________(a crack in the earth’s surface) at a point called the _____________. Directly above the focus is a point on the earth’s surface called the _____________________. The energy spreads outward in all directions as vibrations called __________________________. The ______________ of the earthquake is the point in the crust, or mantle, where _________________________ is being released. • The ____________________ is the point on Earth’s surface directly ________________ the focus; energy that reaches the surface is ______________ at this point. Therefore, the epicenter has the greatest amount of ______________________. What Causes EARTHQUAKES? • • • Used to describe both sudden slip on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slip • Caused by ________________________or _________________________ activity, Caused by other sudden ___________________________________ in the earth. Tectonic plates move past each other causing stress. Stress causes the rock to collapse . What Kind Of Damage Do Earthquake Causes? • Earthquakes can also cause _________________________, sudden eruptions as in the case of a hot lava flow from a _______________________ or giant waves called ____________________________. Sometimes _________________________________ are also formed. Such earthquakes are attributed with the creation of the greatest _________________________ mountain range and the longest land mountain range. Earthquakes and People: Many population centers are located near active ________________________zones and/or active plate ________________________ such as the San Andreas Fault. Millions of people in these population centers have suffered personal and economic losses due to volcanic and earthquake activity. Questions: When exposed to sudden lateral forces produced by seismic waves, what would happen to buildings and bridges? ___________________________________________________________________________. The complex infra-structure(_________________________) of modern cities also poses a ___________________ in case of a major earthquake. Over the past few decades, architects and engineers have developed a number of innovative(groundbreaking) technologies to ensure houses, multi-dwelling units, and skyscrapers ______________ instead of _________________. Making these buildings more pliable(____________________), less brittle(___________________), and better able to _________________ with the earthquake waves called ____________________ waves has made it possible for inhabitants(______________________) to survive extremely destructive earthquakes. Earthquakes of Interest: o o o o o Great San Francisco Earthquake – 1906 (8.3 magnitude) Loma Prieta Earthquake – 1989 (7.1 magnitude) Kobe, Japan Earthquake – 1995 (7.2 magnitude) Northridge Earthquake – 1994 (6.6 magnitude) Charleston, South Carolina Earthquake – 1886 (7.0 magnitude) o Haiti Earthquake – 2010 (7.0 magnitude) o Indian Ocean Earthquake 2004 (9.0 magnitude) HW PART ONE: 1. What are temblor thwarting technologies? 2. HOW LONG DO EARTHQUAKES NORMALLY LAST?