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Social Psychology-branch of psychology that studies the effects of social variables and
congnnitios on individual behavior and social interactions
Social Context-combination of people , the activities and interactions among peopld, the
setting in which behavior occurs and the expectations and social norms governing
behavior in that setting
Situationism-environmental conditions influence people’s behavior as much or more than
their personal dispositions do.
Social Role-socially defined patters of behavior that are expected of persons in a given
setting or group
Script-knowledge about the sequence of events and actions that is extected in a particular
Social norms-group’s expectations regarding what is appropriate and acceptable for its
members’ attitudes and behavior
Asch Effect-a form of conformity in which a group majority influences individual
Conformity-tendency for people to adopt the behaviors, attitudes, and opinions of other
members of a group
Groupthink-members of a group attempt to conform their opinionsto what each believes
to be the consensus of the group
Milgram’s Obedience Experiment-although many of the participants in the study
dissented verbally, the majority obeyed
Diffusion of Responsibility-dilution or weakening of each group member’s obligation to
act when responsibility is perceived to be shared with all group members
Social Reality-individual’s subjective interpretation of other people and of relationships
with them
Reward theory of attraction-social learning view that says we like best those who give us
maximum rewards at minimum cost
Principle of Proximity-people at work will make more friends among those who are
nearby, with whom they have the most contact.
Similarity Principle-people are attracted to those who are most similar to t hemselves
Match hypothesis-most people willfind friends and mates that are perceived to be of
about their same level of attractiveness
Expectancy-value theory-how people decide whether or not to pursue a relationship by
weighing the potential value of the relationship against their expectation of success in
establishing the relationship
Cognitive Dissonance-highly motivating state in which people have conflicting
cognitions, especially when their voluntary actions conflict with their attitudes
Fundamental attribution error-tendency to emphasize internal causes and ignore external
Self-serving bias-attributional pattern in which one takes credit for success but denies
responsibility for failure
Prejudice-negative attitude toward an individual based solely on his or her membership in
a particular group
Discrimination-negative action taken against an individual as a result of his or her group
Social distance-perceived difference or similarity between oneself and another person
Scapegoating-blaming an innocent person or a group for one’s own troubles
Triangular theory of love-describes various kinds of love in terms of 3 components,
passion, intimacy and commitment
Violence and Aggression-behavior that is intended to cause harm
Cohesiveness-solidarity, loyalty, and a sense of group membership
Mutual interdependence- shared sense that individuals or groups need each other in order
to achieve common goals