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Transcript
Chemistry 12
Electrochemistry I
Name:
Date:
Block:
1. Oxidation Numbers
2. Electron gain and loss
3. Agents
Electrochemistry is the study of the interchange of chemical and electrical energy.
 Reactions with electron transfers are commonly called oxidation-reduction reactions (redox
reactions)
 Not all reactions involve an electron transfer – these reactions are referred to as metathesis
reactions
Oxidation Numbers
Oxidation number is the real or apparent charge of an atom or ion when all bonds in the species containing
the atom are or ion are considered to be ionic. Also called “combining capacity”.
Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers (simplified):
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Hint!!
It might be helpful to break up a compound in a dissociation equation first!
Ex: KMnO4 
Ex: Na2Mo2O5 
Example: Assign the oxidation number of each atom in the following species
a) WBr4
b) AsO4 3-
c) Pb(NO3)2
d) C4H10
e) Al2(SO4)3
f) CO3 2-
g) NH4+
h) Na2Cr2O7
MORE PRACTICE YAY! (Answers found under “Worksheet 1”
Determine the oxidation number for each of the following elements in each compound:
F2
Fe2O3
S2Cl2
BrO2-
CaH2
H2
S2O32-
CN-
ZnO
NH2OH
P4
Cs2O2
S2O8 2-
N2H4
H2AsO3 -
PO3 3-
N2O5
WBr4
K2S
SeO3 2-
SF6
NO2
MnO2-
Na2Mo2O5
K4P2O7
H2CO
OH-
Cl2O
O3
Ba2XeO4
PCl3
P2O5
U3O8
Pb
NaAuCl4
S2O3 2-
(NH4)2SeO4
CH3OH
LiAlH4
CH3COO-
FeCl3
(NH4)2C2O4
BF3
SiO4 4-
Hebden Workbook Pg. 194 #3-5
Electron gain and loss
Loss
Oxidation number increases
Called “oxidation”


Gain
Oxidation number decreases
Called “reduction”


L
G
E
E
O
R
O
R
I
I
L
G
Fe (s) + Cu 2+ (aq)  Fe 2+ (aq) + Cu(s)
Practice:
Consider the following reaction:
2 Al + Fe2O3  Al2O3 + 2 Fe
Determine the oxidation numbers for each atom and write the value on top of the element in the reaction.
1. Are electrons gained or lost by each iron (III) ion? ________________________
a. How many? ______
2. Are electrons gained or lost by each Al atom? ________________________
a. How many? ______
3. How many electrons were transferred in total during the reaction? ______
4. What happened to the oxide ion, O2- during the reaction?
The number of electrons ________________ by the species being oxidized must always equal the number
of electrons ________________ by the species being reduced.
Agents
Another way of looking at it is that one species causes the electron loss or gain. A species that is being
oxidized causes the other species to gain electrons and be reduced.
A substance that is reduced acts as an _________________________ agent, while a substance that is oxidized
acts as a _________________________ agent.
Practice:
Indicate the oxidizing and reducing agents in each of the following reactions. Assign oxidation numbers to
all atoms in the equation. For each reaction write the oxidation and reduction half reaction:
1. Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq)  MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)
Oxidizing agent:
Reducing Agent:
2. 4 NH3 (g) + 7 O2 (g)  4 NO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l)
Oxidizing agent:
Reducing Agent:
3. C(s) + 2 H2 (g)  CH4
Oxidizing agent:
Reducing Agent:
4. 3 Sr (s) + 2 FeBr3 (aq)  2 Fe (s) + 3 SrBr2 (aq)
Oxidizing agent:
Reducing Agent:
5. 5 CO (g) + Cl2O5 (s)  5 CO2 (g) + Cl2 (s)
Oxidizing agent:
Reducing Agent:
6. 4 PH3 (g)  P4 (g) + 6 H2 (g)
Oxidizing agent:
Worksheet
Reducing Agent: