Download anatomy intro language of anatomy (4)

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Neuroanatomy wikipedia, lookup

Central nervous system wikipedia, lookup

Testicle wikipedia, lookup

Body language wikipedia, lookup

Female body shape wikipedia, lookup

Shoulder wikipedia, lookup

Gastrointestinal tract wikipedia, lookup

Circulatory system wikipedia, lookup

Head and neck anatomy wikipedia, lookup

Anatomical terminology wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY
Language of Anatomy
Martini Chapter 1
Credit: Portland Community College
Edited 2009
Anatomy
• Gross anatomy: the study of body structures
visible to the naked eye (without a
microscope)
• Microscopic anatomy:
• Cytology: Analysis of the internal structures of
individual cells
• Histology: examination of tissues (groups of
specialized cells that work together to perform
a specific function.
2
Anatomical Position
• Anytime you describe structures
relative to one another, you must
assume this standard position:
• Body erect
• Feet slightly apart
• Palms facing forward
• Thumbs point away from body
3
Anterior
Landmarks
4
Posterior
Landmarks
5
Anatomical Locations
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Abdominal: abdominal region
Acromial: the point of the shoulder
Antebrachial: forearm
Antecubital: anterior surface of the elbow
Axillary: armpit
Brachial: upper arm
Buccal: cheek of the face
Calcaneal: heel of the foot
Carpal: wrist
Cephalic: head
6
Anatomical Locations
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cervical: neck
Deltoid: round part of the shoulder
Digital: fingers and toes
Dorsum: back
Femoral: thigh
Frontal: forehead
Gluteal: buttocks
Hallux: big toe
Inguinal: groin
Lumbar: lower back
Mammary: breast
7
Anatomical Locations
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mental: chin
Nasal: Nose
Occipital: base of the skull
Olecranal: elbow
Oral: mouth
Orbital: bony eye socket
Otic: ear
Palmar: palm of hand
Patellar: Kneecap
Pedal: Foot
8
Anatomical Locations
• Pelvic: pelvis region
• Perineal: area between anus and external
genitals
• Plantar: sole of foot
• Pollex: thumb
• Popliteal: behind the knee
• Pubic: genital region
• Sacral: lower back between the hips
• Scapular: shoulder blade
• Tarsal: ankle
• Thoracic: chest
9
Body Orientation
and Direction
• These are relative positions
• Proximal/distal
• Used to describe locations on
the arms and legs
• GI tract
• Medial/lateral
• Medial is closer to the midline
• Farther away from the midline
10
Body Orientation and Direction
• Dorsal: Back
• Ventral: Front
• Superior or Cephalad is
toward the head
• Inferior or Caudal is
toward the feet
• Anterior: most forward
• Posterior: toward the
backside
11
Planes of the Body
12
Dorsal Body Cavity
• Dorsal cavity
protects the nervous
system
• Contains Brain and
Spinal Cord
13
Cavities
• Thoracic Cavity
• Heart & Lungs
• Subdivided into the
mediastinum and plural
cavities
• Lower border is the diaphragm
• Abdominal Cavity
• Stomach, Liver, Intestines
• Pelvic Cavity
• Reproductive organs Bladder,
Rectum
14
Serous Membranes
•
Serous Membranes have two layers
1. Parietal serosa lines internal body walls
1. Visceral serosa covers the internal organs
•
Serous fluid separates the serosae
15
Serous Membranes
16
Serous Membranes of the Heart
17
Quadrants
• RUQ
• Liver
• LUQ
• Spleen
• RLQ
• Appendix
• LLQ
• Sigmoid colon
18
Abdominopelvic
Regions
19
Lab Activity 2
Organ Systems
Martini Chapter 1, Pages 9-10
Integumentary System
• Structures: Skin, hair, sweat and oil glands
• Function:
•
•
•
•
•
Forms external body covering
Protects deeper tissues from injury
Involved in vitamin D synthesis
Prevents desiccation, heat loss, and pathogen entry
Site of pain and pressure receptors
21
Skeletal System
• Structure: 206 bones of the human body
• Function:
• Protects and supports body organs
• Provides a framework that muscles can use to create
movement
• Hematopoiesis (synthesis of blood cells)
• Mineral storage
• Bone contains 99% of the body’s store of calcium
22
Muscular System
• Structures: The 600+ muscles of the body
• Function:
•
•
•
•
Locomotion
Manipulation of the environment
Maintaining posture
Thermogenesis (generation of heat)
23
Nervous System
• Structures: Brain, Spinal cord,
and peripheral nerves.
• Function:
• Fast-acting control system of the body
• Monitoring of the internal and external environment
and responding (when necessary) by initiating
muscular or glandular activity
• Information Assessment
24
Endocrine System
• Structures: Hormone Secreting Glands
• Pituitary, Thyroid, Thymus, Pineal,
Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Small
Intestine, Stomach, Testes, Ovaries,
Kidneys, Heart
• Functions:
• Long-term control system of the body
• Regulates growth, reproduction, and nutrient
use among other things.
25
Cardiovascular System
• Structures:
• Heart, Blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries)
• Functions:
• The heart pumps blood thru the blood vessels.
• Blood provides the transport medium for nutrients
(glucose, amino acids, lipids), gases (O2, CO2),
wastes (urea, creatinine), signaling molecules
(hormones), and heat.
26
Lymphatic/Immune
System
• Structures:
• Lymphatic vessels, Lymph nodes, Spleen, Thymus,
Red bone marrow
• Functions:
• Returning “leaked” fluid back to the bloodstream
• Disposal of debris
• Attacking and resisting foreign invaders (pathogens
i.e., disease-causing organisms)
• Absorption of fat from the digestive tract
27
Respiratory System
• Structures:
• Nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
• Functions:
• Constantly supply the blood with O2, and remove
CO2
• Regulate blood pH
28
Digestive System
• Structures:
• Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine,
large intestine, rectum, salivary glands, pancreas,
liver, gallbladder
• Functions:
• Ingestion and subsequent breakdown of food into
absorbable units that will enter the blood for
distribution to the body’s cells
29
Urinary System
• Structures:
• Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder,
urethra
• Functions:
• Removal of nitrogenous wastes
• Regulation of body’s levels of water, electrolytes,
and acidity
30
Reproductive System
• Structures:
• Male:
• Testes, scrotum, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra,
prostate gland, seminal vesicles, penis
• Female:
• Ovary, uterine tube, uterus, cervix, vagina, mammary
glands
• Functions:
• Making Babies
31
The End
32