Download Aldehydes and Ketones

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Ring-closing metathesis wikipedia, lookup

Physical organic chemistry wikipedia, lookup

Aromaticity wikipedia, lookup

Elias James Corey wikipedia, lookup

Homoaromaticity wikipedia, lookup

Ene reaction wikipedia, lookup

Alkane wikipedia, lookup

Haloalkane wikipedia, lookup

Metal carbonyl wikipedia, lookup

Baylis–Hillman reaction wikipedia, lookup

Wolff rearrangement wikipedia, lookup

Strychnine total synthesis wikipedia, lookup

Alkene wikipedia, lookup

Alcohol wikipedia, lookup

1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition wikipedia, lookup

Carbohydrate wikipedia, lookup

Aldol reaction wikipedia, lookup

Wolff–Kishner reduction wikipedia, lookup

Hydroformylation wikipedia, lookup

Asymmetric induction wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
ALDEHYDES AND KETONES
ALDEHYDES
• CARBONYL GROUP – A FUNCTIONAL GROUP THAT HAS A CARBON JOINED TO AN OXYGEN
ATOM BY A DOUBLE BOND (C=O)
• ALDEHYDES – COMPOUNDS THAT HAVE A CARBONYL GROUP BONDED TO ONE CARBON AND
TO ONE HYDROGEN.
THE CARBONYL GROUP OF AN ALDEHYDE IS OFTEN ABBREVIATED AS –CHO. DO NOT CONFUSE
THIS SYMBOL WITH THAT OF AN ALCOHOL.
NAMING ALDEHYDES
• ALDEHYDES ARE NAMED BY REPLACING THE FINAL “E” OF THE NAME OF THE ALKANE WITH THE
SAME NUMBER OF CARBONS TO “AL”.
• BECAUSE IN ALDEHYDES THE CARBONYL GROUP IS ALWAYS ATTACHED TO THE FIRST CARBON,
THERE IS NO NEED TO PLACE A 1 IN FRONT OF THE NAME.
• IF THERE ARE SUBSTITUENTS PRESENT, THE CHAIN IS NUMBERED BEGINNING WITH 1 FOR THE
CARBON ATOM AT THE –CHO AND THE NAMES ARE LISTED ALPHABETICALLY. IF THERE ARE
TWO OR MORE IDENTICAL BRANCHES, USE PREFIXES.
ALDEHYDES
• EXAMPLES:
ALDEHYDES
• EXAMPLES:
HEXANAL
4-METHYLHEPTANAL
KETONES
• KETONES – COMPOUNDS THAT HAVE A CARBONYL GROUP BONDED TO TWO CARBONS.
• SO, BOTH ALDEHYDES AND KETONE CONTAIN A CARBONYL GROUP. THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN THEM IS THAT IN THE ALDEHYDE THE CARBONYL GROUP IS AT THE END OF THE
CHAIN AND IN THE KETONE THE CARBONYL GROUP IS IN A SECONDARY CARBON.
NAMING KETONES
• THE LONGEST CHAIN MUST CONTAIN THE CARBONYL GROUP AND THE PARENT NAME WILL
END IN “ONE”.
• NUMBER THE CHAIN IN THE DIRECTION THAT GIVES THE CARBONYL GROUP THE LOWEST
POSSIBLE NUMBER AND PLACE THE NUMBER OF THE CARBON WITH THE CARBONYL GROUP IN
FRONT OF THE NAME.
• AS WITH OTHER COMPOUNDS, DENOTE THE LOCATION AND NAME OF EACH BRANCH IN
ALPHABETICAL ORDER, AND IF THERE ARE TWO OR MORE IDENTICAL BRANCHES USE PREFIXES.
KETONES
• EXAMPLES:
KETONES
• EXAMPLES:
• 3,3-DIBROMO-2-PENTANONE
• 4,5-DIMETHYL-2-HEXANONE
PROPERTIES OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES
• THE POLARITY OF THE CARBONYL GROUP MAKES ALDEHYDES AND KETONES MODERATELY POLAR
COMPOUNDS. AS A RESULT, THE HAVE HIGHER BOILING POINTS THAN ALKANES WITH SIMILAR
MOLECULAR WEIGHTS. HOWEVER, BECAUSE THEY DON’T HYDROGEN BOND WITH EACH OTHER,
THEY HAVE LOWER BOILING POINTS THAT ALCOHOLS.
• IN A SERIES OF COMPOUNDS OF SIMILAR MOLECULAR WEIGHTS, THEIR BOILING POINTS ARE AS
FOLLOWS:
• ALKANES < ALDEHYDES/KETONES < ALCOHOLS
• ALDEHYDES AND KETONES ARE SOLUBLE IN ORGANIC SOLVENTS, AND THOSE WITH FEWER THAN
FIVE CARBONS ARE ALSO SOLUBLE IN WATER, BECAUSE THEY ARE ABLE TO HYDROGEN BOND WITH
WATER MOLECULES.
REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES
• OXIDATION OF ALDEHYDES - AS PREVIOUSLY MENTIONED, ALDEHYDES CAN BE OXIDIZED TO
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS.
REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES
• OXIDATION OF KETONES- KETONES ARE RESISTANT TO OXIDATION.
NO REACTION
REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES
• REDUCTION REACTIONS – THE SYMBOL USED FOR A REDUCING AGENT IS [H]. A REDUCING
AGENT SUCH AS H2 IN THE PRESENCE OF A CATALYST SUCH AS Ni OR Pt CAN BE USED. A
REDUCTION REACTION IS THE REVERSE OF AN OXIDATION.
• REDUCTION OF ALDEHYDES – WHEN AN ALDEHYDE IS REDUCED, HYDROGENS ARE ADDED TO
PRODUCE A PRIMARY ALCOHOL.
REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES
• REDUCTION OF KETONES- WHEN A KETONE IS REDUCED, HYDROGENS ARE ADDED TO
PRODUCE A SECONDARY ALCOHOL.
ETHERS
• ETHERS ARE COMPOUNDS IN WHICH AN OXYGEN ATOM HAS TWO SINGLE BONDS TO TWO
ALKYL GROUPS.
NAMING ETHERS
• ETHERS ARE NAMED AS ALKOXY ALKANES
• IDENTIFY THE PARTS ATTACHED TO THE OXYGEN.
• THE SHORTER OF THE TWO CHAINS IS NAMED FIRST AND ITS ANE ENDING IS CHANGED TO OXY.
• THE LONGER CHAIN NAMED SECOND AND IS NAMED AS AN ALKANE.
METHOXYPROPANE
METHOXYETHANE
NAMING ETHERS
• ANOTHER SYSTEM FOR NAMING ETHERS WORKS BY CITING THE NAMES OF THE R GROUPS IN
ALPHABETICAL ORDER, FOLLOWED BY THE NAME ETHER.
• METHYL PROPYL ETHER
DIETHYL ETHER