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Chapter 40: The Immune System and Disease
40-1 Infectious Disease
-A disease is any change, other than injury, that disrupts the normal
functions of the body
-Some diseases are inherited, others are caused by caused by materials in the
environment, and others are caused by agents such as bacteria, viruses, and
-Disease causing agents are called pathogens
- The work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch led to the germ theory of
disease, which states that infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms,
or germs
-Koch’s postulate, a series of guidelines still used today to identify the
microorganisms that cause a specific disease:
1. pathogen identified
2. pathogen grown in pure culture
3. pathogen injected into healthy lab mouse
4. healthy mouse becomes sick
5. pathogen identified
-Bacteria break down tissues and release toxins
-toxins are poisons that produce illness by disrupting bodily functions
-Viruses reproduce inside the host cell by using materials of the host cell to
make copies of itself
-parasites are pathogens that live and feed inside infected organisms
-diseases are spread either by person to person contact, contaminated water
or food, or infected animals
-STD’s dangerous pathogens spread by sexual contact
-antibiotics kill bacteria without harming the cells of humans or animals
40-2 The Immune System
-The body first line of defense is to keep pathogens out
4 components of the first line are: skin, mucus, sweat, tears
-second line of defense comes into play when pathogens enter the body
-inflamatory response
Specific defenses
-antigens trigger immune responses
-2 types of immune responses are Humoral immunity and Cell-mediated
-proteins that help destroy pathogens are called antibodies
-B cells produce antibodies and T cells assist plasma cells
-vaccinations are injections of weakened or mild forms of a pathogen to
produce immunity, they stimulate the immune system to create millions of
plasma cells ready to produce specific types of antibodies should you ever
be exposed to the pathogen
-active and passive immunity
40-3 Immune System Disorders
-allergies result when antigens from allergens bind to mast cells
-histamines increase the flow of blood and fluids to the surrounding area
-if you have allergies you may take antihistamines, they are drugs used to
counteract the sneezing, runny eyes and nose, and other irritations
-Asthma can also be triggered by certain antigens
-when the immune system makes a mistake and attacks the body’s own cells,
it produces autoimmune disease such as juvenile-onset diabetes, myasthenia
gravis, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatic fever
- Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
-spread by a virus
-helper T cells are attacked by HIV
-HIV is spread by sharing intravenous needles and by contact with infected
blood or other bodily fluids
40-4 Cancer
-Cancer begins when something goes wrong with the controls that normally
regulate cell growth and division
-A mass of growing tissue is known as a tumor
- Benign tumors do not spread to surrounding healthy tissue or to other parts
of the body
-Malignant tumors can invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue or
spread to other parts of the body
-the spread of cancerous tumors beyond their original site is called
-Carcinogens are chemical compounds that are known to cause cancer
- some treatments for cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, and drug
therapy (chemotherapy)