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Transcript
Vocabulary

Atom, isotope, element, proton, atomic number,
neutron, nucleus, electron, atomic mass
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PS 2- Properties of Atoms

Learning Goals (indicators)
 Compare the subatomic particle (protons, neutrons, electrons) of an
atom with regard to mass, location, and charge, and explain how these
particles affect the properties of an atom (including identity, mass,
volume, reactivity)
 Illustrate the fact that the atoms of elements exist as stable or unstable
isotopes
 Explain the trends of the periodic table based on the elements’ valence
electrons and atomic numbers




Use the atomic number and the mass number to calculate the number of
protons, neutrons, and/or electrons for a given isotope of an element
Predict the charge that a representative element will acquire according to the
arrangement of electrons in its outer energy level
Compare fission and fusion (including the basic processes and the fact both
fission and fusion convert a fraction of the mass of interacting particles into
energy and release a great amount of energy)
Explain
use of nuclear applications5/4/2017
(including
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2 the consequences that the
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medical technologies, nuclear power plants, and nuclear weapons) can have.
Element of the Week



Every week you will look up information about an assigned
element – due every THURSDAY
EOW sheet
Websites:




www.chemicalelements.com
www.webelements.com
NO EXCUSES!
Affects your grade
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Let’s see what you know

4
On your notes…
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Let’s see what your group knows








There are 6 posters
You will start at your normal lab table
You will keep the marker that is there
When you move to the next table you will hand the
marker to someone else in your group
You MUST put something down on the paper
You can cross through a wrong answer
You will have 2-3 minutes
When you get back to your poster bring it to the white
board and
post it up with the magnet
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Questions you will answer
throughout
the
unit
 What are atoms?










What are some properties of atoms?
What are atoms composed of?
Where are the particles located?
What is an isotope?
What is the function of an isotope?
How do isotopes impact our world?
How does oxygen differ from aluminum?
Draw the structure of an oxygen atom. What is the
structure of atoms?
How does the structure of the atoms determine the
function of that atom?
Why do atoms behave the way they do?
What did you learn?
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Why study atoms?
CT scans
 Funny and funnier
 Sodium
 Chemical reactions

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Day1 –periodic table intro
You need your periodic table
 You need red, green, blue, and yellow

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Intro to Period Table Navigation
If she can do it…
 This is your new best friend!
 You will use this on the EOC
 What does periodic mean?



Repeating – table repeats every eight elements
Summed Up!- COMPASS- Periodic Table
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The Key
Atomic number
 Letters are the symbol
of the element- notice
the capitals and lower
cases
 The name is the word
 Average atomic mass

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C
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
The symbols for
some elements don’t
always obviously
match their names

Write a few
examples from the
table
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Atomic Number
All the protons in the nucleus of an atom
 Elements are listed by increasing atomic
number
 Identifies the element


Flip over and find the elements that have an
atomic number of 2, 8, 14
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Atomic Mass
All the protons AND neutrons in the nucleus of
an atom
 This is an average of all the element’s isotopes


Flip over and find the elements that have an
atomic mass of 14.01, 32.07, 35.45
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How to find…
Neutrons
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Electrons
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Protons
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To yourself…

Find the atomic number, atomic mass, group
number and period number for…
Platinum
 Zirconium
 Barium
 Fluorine

THUMBS??????
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Where to find…
Metals
nonmetals
(yellow)
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metalloids
(blue)
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Liquids, solids and gases at
room temperature
Liquids
Solids
Gases
Exceptions: Aluminum and Mercury
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Atomic Structure Worksheet
Thumbs?
 Finish for homework

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Video
-flip to your definitions and add anything that you
didn’t have the first time
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Reading
P 283-285
 P 317-320
 P 323-325
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Questions
P 292 #1, 3, 4
 P 329 set one

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Day 2
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History of the atom
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History is important
Timeline of cell phones
 Timeline of cars
 Atom History rap
 Atom History song

WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW HISTORY?
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Who are they?
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Where are the girls?
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Read

Read pages 317-320
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Early ideas about the atom

Questions are in your notes
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Make a time line

If you are in green, yellow, black you will be
reading first
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Use your time line to expand
information and design a poster

Design a poster illustrating ONE of the
models that were proposed since 1800s

Explain how each model reflects the new
knowledge that scientists gained through
their experiments
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Democritus
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John Dalton history
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





John Dalton's Atomic Theory 1808
Each element is composed of extremely small particles called
atoms.
All atoms of a given element are identical.
Atoms of different elements have different properties, including
mass and chemical reactivity.
Atoms are not changed by chemical reactions, but merely
rearranged into different compounds.
Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element
combine.
A compound is defined by the number, type (element), and
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proportion
32 of the constituent atoms.
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Marie and Pierre Curie
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Thomson

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Cathode ray tube
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Rutherford
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Niels Bohr
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Current model
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Day 3
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Atomic structure
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What do you know?
 What
are atoms composed of?
 Where are the particles located?
 What are the charges of each
particle?
 What is the mass of each particle?
 What is the volume of each particle?
 Why do atoms behave the way the
do?
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Think about these
 What are the
differences?
 What do they behave
like they do?

Imagine it!
Sugar
 Cream
 Ice


Disclaimer: yes
you can add fruit
and other things
to change the
flavor
Review Periodic Table

The chemical symbol
is an abbreviation of
the element’s name
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 Atoms
are the smallest unit of matter
 All
matter is made up of atoms
(atomic theory)
 Atoms
are composed of three smaller
(subatomic) particles called protons,
neutrons, and electrons
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Find the electrons!!
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Element Builder
Graphic Organizer
-you are going to summarize what you learned
from the gizmo in this graphic organizer
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Atoms


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
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Neutrally charged because P+ = EMade of smaller particles of matter
The number of protons determines the identity
Atoms of same element have the same number of
protons but neutrons may vary
Atoms may lose or gain electrons yet still remain the
same element
Atoms break down into subatomic particles
(electrons, neutrons, protons)
Neutrons (N±)
Found in the center of nucleus and is very tiny
 Neutral charge with a AMU = 1
 Atomic Mass = N± + P+ (avg. of all isotopes)
 Do not change during chemical reaction
 Isotopes – Neutrons change
 Atoms of same element can have a different
number of N±

Protons (P+)








Charge is positive
AMU = 1
Found in the center of the nucleus
Gives the nucleus its positive charge
Proton number never changes
All elements are placed by increasing atomic
numbers on the periodic table (IDs the element)
Protons (positive) are equal to Electrons (negative)
so all elements are neutral
Protons do not change during a chemical reaction
Electrons (E -)











Charge is negative
AMU = 0
Found in the energy cloud at no exact location
Within the cloud there is more energy farther from the nucleus
1st 2e-, 2nd 8e-, 3rd 8eElectrons = Protons
Responsible for an atoms chemistry
Electrons can be transferred (gain or lose electrons) but are still
the same atom
Can be shared during a chemical reaction, Last energy level Echange during the chemical reaction
Volume of an atom is the electron cloud
Forms ions
Think of an Atom as a Magnet
The nucleus has a net charge that is positive
 Protons (+) + Electrons (-) attract
 Electrons (-) + Electrons (-) repel
 Atoms are neutrally charged because Protons =
Electrons

Particle Interaction
Protons will repel each other
 Electrons will repel each other
 Protons and Electrons attract each
other

What is the charge of the nucleus?
 What is the charge of the electron
cloud?

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What are particles responsible for
and what happens in a chemical
reaction

Neutrons:



Protons



Responsible for isotopes
Is not affected by a chemical reaction
Responsible for identification
Is not affected by a chemical reaction
Electrons


Responsible for volume
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Is affected
by a chemical
reaction
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Let’s Draw It
You need red, blue, and yellow colored pencils
 Be precise because I do not have extra copies
 When you are finished put it in the box

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Video
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Day 4

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Atomic structure
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Draw an atom of Oxygen

Put the protons, neutrons, and electrons in
the right spots
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Draw that Atom Practice

Draw
Na
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Bohr's model shows electrons moving
around the nucleus in fixed orbits
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Bohr’s model
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Build It!
Build an Atom
 You need a board and the three container with
blue, red and yellow marbles…
 You have 20 minutes to do the front- when the
timer rings sit down quickly to get instructions for
the next activity
 Build the atoms then fill in the chart based on
WHAT YOU SEE!

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Day 5

Atomic structure
Atomic Number
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
Carbon-12
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Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an
atom
 It is a whole number
 Always the same for a given element and will
never change
 Can be found on periodic table
 The number of protons gives an atom identity

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Organize It!
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Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus
of an atom, which makes it a whole
number
 Atomic number is always the same for
a given element
 Can be found on the periodic table!

Protons (P+)








Charge is positive
AMU = 1
Found in the nucleus
Gives the nucleus its positive charge
Proton number never changes
All elements are placed by increasing
atomic numbers on the periodic table
(IDs the element)
Protons (positive) are equal to Electrons
(negative) so all elements are neutral
Protons do not change during a chemical
reaction
Electrons (E -)







Charge is negative
AMU = 0
Found in the energy cloud at no exact location
Within the cloud there is more energy farther
from the nucleus
Electrons = Protons
Responsible for an atoms chemistry
Electrons can be transferred (gain or lose) or
shared during a chemical reaction
Think of an Atom as a
Magnet
The nucleus has a net charge that is
positive
 Protons (+) + Electrons (-) attract
 Electrons (-) + Electrons (-) repel
 Atoms are neutrally charged because
Protons = Electrons

Let Draw!

Atomic number activity
3 circles- first one is for the nucleus
 Red=protons (not green)
 Yellow= electrons (not red)

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Create a model
You will work at your lab table, but EVERYONE is
doing this
 Green, Yellow teams: Carbon
 Black, Red teams: Nitrogen
 White, Orange: Oxygen
 You will decide what color your protons, neutrons
and electrons will be and put it on your lab sheet
 I will demonstrate step #12

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Video
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Day 6

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Atomic mass
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The nucleus
 How did they find it

Atomic Mass

The total number of protons and
neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
 Mass
number is not on periodic table
Atomic mass is the weighted averages
of masses of naturally occurring
isotopes
 It is usually a decimal

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Look at the differences!
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 You
use the name or symbol of the
element followed by the mass
number
boron-10 and boron-11
Or
B-10 and B-11
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OR
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Draw me!!
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Organize It!!
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Atomic Mass
All Protons and Neutrons are found in
the Nucleus of an Atom
 It is a weighted average of the
masses of the naturally occurring
isotopes
 Can be found on the periodic table
 It is an average and not usually a
whole number

Nucleus
Nucleus is found in the center of an
atom with the electrons moving in
patterns around the nucleus
 Center of the atom which contains the
P + and the N ± which are tightly
bound
 Has a positive charge which is equal
to the number of protons
 Particles inside the nucleus do not
change in a chemical reaction

Proton






Found in the Nucleus
Has a positive charge, Which gives the
nucleus a positive charge
Number of protons for an element never
changes
Atomic mass unit is equal to 1
Makes up part of the atomic mass of an
element
The number of protons determine the
identity of an atom (an element)
Neutron
Found in nucleus
 Has no charge, it is neutral
 Has a AMU = 1
 Makes up the other part of the atomic
mass of an element
 Forms isotopes

Isotopes

An Isotope is an atom of the same
element with the same atomic number
but a different atomic mass.

Isotopes are two or more atoms of the
same element having the same
number of protons but different
numbers of neutrons
Let’s Draw It and Mass It!!
Atomic mass activity- 15-20 min
 Atomic mass lab- 15-20 min


Finish at home
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Video
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Day 7
Electrons-bohr models and Lewis dot structures
 You may need a calculator and a blank scratch
sheet of paper

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Firework flame test
 Real electrons

Review
Protons?
 Neutrons?
 Electrons?

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Electron Cloud
There are different “energy levels”
 The exact location of an electron cannot be
pinpointed
 Scientists use the concept of probability to
predict where an electron may be located
 It is drawn so it looks like electrons don’t move,
but remember the drawings are a represenation

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Where are the electrons
placed on a diagram?
Each energy level (circle) has a maximum
number of electrons that can fit there
 2 in the first circle
 8 in the second
 8 in the third
 When drawing a representation you start on
the first circle and fill it up then move out to
the next circle and continue until you have
put the correct number of dots

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Where are the electrons
placed on a diagram?

Examples- C, Cl, He, H, Li, Mg, Ne, N, O, P, Na, S
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Element
# of P+
# of N+/-
# of E-
Electrons in 1st Electrons in
energy level
2nd energy
level
Electrons in 3rd
energy level
Carbon
Chlorine
Helium
Hydrogen
Lithium
Magnesium
Neon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
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Coin Toss Probability
If you flip a coin what are the total possible
outcomes you could have?
 Heads or tails (2)
 For each flip what is the probability of
getting a head? Tail?
 To find this you divided the possible
outcome by the total possibilities
 1/2

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Dice Probability
Dice have how many sides (total
possible outcomes)
 How many 1? 2? 3?
 There are 3 sides that have a one
 To find the probability of getting a 1 on a
roll you divide 3 by 6 to get ½ or 50%
 What does this mean?

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Electron Probability
How does this apply to electrons?
 Nobody knows the exact location of an
electron at any given time
 Probability is used to predict where is might
be or where it spends most of the time

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Roll It!
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Flaming Elements
Light is given off from these chemicals in
different colors
 What happens is that the electrons of the
elements are heated and “excited”
 They “jump” to a higher energy level
 As they “fall” back down the result is color

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Flame Test
Pull your hair back – I will light the flame
 Be careful with the flame from the sterno
 Write the symbols of the elements down on
your paper.
 Find the name of the element on the periodic
table and write that down

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READ/LISTEN TO DIRECTIONS
 Carefully take a Q-tip and dip it in the alcohol
cup
 Then dip into ONE of the elements
 Place it in the fire and watch what color it burns
and make a note on your paper
 Some of them burn orange, but you have to
look carefully past the orange- DO Na last!!!!!!

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Exit Slip
In the space provided in your notes…
 Explain what you learned about electrons, Bohr
models, and Lewis dot structure
 Let me know if you are confused

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Day 8
You need your periodic table
 You need the following colored pencils:

Red
 Yellow
 Blue
 Green
 2 others


What102
are differences between…
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Period Table Navigation
If she can do it…
 This is your new best friend!
 You will use this on the EOC
 What does periodic mean?



Repeating – table repeats every eight elements
Summed Up!- COMPASS- Periodic Table
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The Key
Atomic number
 Letters are the symbol
of the element- notice
the capitals and lower
cases
 The name is the word
 Average atomic mass

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C
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Atomic Number
All the protons in the nucleus of an atom
 Elements are listed by increasing atomic
number
 Identifies the element


Flip over and find the elements that have an
atomic number of 2, 8, 14
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Element Notation -label

Carbon-12
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Atomic Mass
All the protons AND neutrons in the nucleus of
an atom
 This is an average of all the element’s isotopes


Flip over and find the elements that have an
atomic mass of 14.01, 32.07, 35.45
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Isotope

An Isotope is a different version of the same
element that has a different mass and
different number of neutrons
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Isotope notation
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How to find…
Neutrons
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Electrons
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Protons
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COMPASS-Periods and Groups
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Period (horizontal)
Tells you the number of
energy levels
 There are 7
 TREND: As you move left
to right the number of
energy levels stays the
same- As you move top
to bottom they increase
by one 113

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The Periodic Table of Elements
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Group/Family (Vertical)

Elements in the same groups have
the same:
Valence electrons
 Dot diagrams
 Oxidation #’s
 Similar chemistry (chemical
behavior)

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The Periodic Table of Elements
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To yourself…

Find the atomic number, atomic mass, group
number and period number for…
Platinum
 Zirconium
 Barium
 Fluorine

THUMBS??????
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Oxidation States (Number)

The number of electrons that an element will
lose, gain or share to become stable

Choose any colored pencil…
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The Periodic Table of Elements
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Valence Electrons
Electrons in the last (outer) energy level
 TREND: From left to right across periods 1-3
atoms of all these elements contain one
more valence electron that the atoms of the
previous elements- From top to bottom within
a group the elements contain the same
number of valence electrons


Choose another colored pencil…
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The Periodic Table of Elements
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Stability of Atoms
 Stable
= happy
 Stable= full outer shell
 Stable= maximum amount of
valence electrons
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
The valence electrons are involved in
bonding.
1
8
7
2
6
3
Is Neon happy?
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Lewis Dot Structure (dot
diagrams)

Shows the pattern of valence electrons
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
Atomic Diagram (Bohr model)
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The Periodic Table of Elements
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Diatomics

Elements that are so reactive they covalently
bond to themselves to form a molecule

Br.I.N.Cl.H.O.F

You need a RED colored pencil
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The Periodic Table of Elements
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Stair step line

Divides chart into left and right (metals and
nonmetals)
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The Periodic Table of Elements
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Where to find…
Metals
nonmetals
(yellow)
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metalloids
(blue)
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Liquids, solids and gases at
room temperature
Liquids
Solids
Gases
Exceptions: Aluminum and Mercury
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The Periodic Table of Elements
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Polyatomic ions

A group of covalently bonded elements that act
as a single element. They have their own
oxidation numbers

Sulfate

Phosphate

Nitrate

Carbonate
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Hydroxide

Ammonium

Chlorate

Sulfite
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Group or Family
Name
1
Alkali Metals
2
Alkaline Earth Metals
13
Boron Group
14
Carbon Group
15
Nitrogen Group
16
Oxygen Group
17
Halogens
18
Noble Gases
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 The
most reactive element (and
metal) is Francium
 The
most reactive nonmetal is
Fluorine
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Atomic Structure Worksheet and
“quiz”
Thumbs?
 Finish for homework

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Video
-flip to your definitions and add anything that you
didn’t have the first time
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Day 9
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
Carbon isotope use in anthropology
Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same element
that have different numbers of neutrons
and different mass numbers
 Ex. isotopes of hydrogen.

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How are isotopes
represented?
 You
use the name or symbol of the
element followed by the mass
number
boron-10 and boron-11
Or
B-10 and B-11
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OR
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Draw me!!
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Video
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Practice

Give the number of protons and neutrons that are
found in each of the following
Isotope
Protons
Neutrons
P-31
Au-200
C-14
I-127
Ra-226
U-235
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Practice

Write the symbol for atoms which have…
30 protons and 35 neutrons
 82 protons and 125 neutrons
 1 proton and 1 neutron

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Isotopes Graphic Organizer

Element with a different number of
neutrons will have a different atomic
mass

Two or more atoms of the same element
having the same number of protons, but
different numbers of neutrons (different
masses)
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Symbols for Isotopes
Mass number
12 C
6
Symbol
Symbol
C – 12
Atomic number
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Mass Number
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Hydrogen
• Protium
1
H
1
• Deuterium 2
H
1
• Tridium
152
3 H
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Carbon

C - 12

C - 14 (Carbon Dating)
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Uranium
U-235
235
U
92
U -238
238
U
92
Radioactive
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Venn Diagram
Isotope?
 Atomic number?
 Mass number?

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Questions

There are 6 sets of atoms described.
Are they…
the same atom
 Different atoms
 Isotopes

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Let’s Draw Hydrogen
Isotopes





You will be give red, green and orangish stickers
 RED=PROTONS
 GREEN=NEUTRONS
 ORANGISH=ELECTRONS
On each sticker place the correct representation for
Protons (p+), neutrons (n+/-) and electrons (e-)
Label the nucleus and the energy level
Write the names and both notations for ALL three isotopes
of hydrogen (from your notes)
Place the correct amount of stickers in the proper location
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Isotope Homework
You will have 15-25 minutes to do this
 Finish at home

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Isotope Penny lab-20 min
1982- The year of the PURDY
 Mass the penny and add 10- this is your
coinium mass number
 Find protons, electrons and neutrons for the
isotopes
 Draw two Bohr models and answer the
questions

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Video

Be prepared for a brief quiz at the end
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Day 10

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Radioactive isotopes
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Testing food
 Radioactive isotopes-Japan
 Radiation found in food

Read p 396-399









What is radioactivity?
How does an radioactive nucleus become stable?
What are the 3 kinds of nuclear decay? What happens in
each of them?
What are some ways that we use/see nuclear reactions for
energy?
What is nuclear waste?
What is half-life?
Where is nuclear waste stored now?
What is the machine called that can detect a radioactive
tracer?
Who is 163
Marie Curie?
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Isotope Review
What are they?
 Examples?
 Drawing?
 Questions??????

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History

Marie Curie
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Uses

video
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Organize It

Two types of isotopes…
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Stable Isotopes

TO BE STABLE

There must be enough neutrons to
block the repulsive forces of the
protons
P+
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P+
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Unstable Isotopes

Too many or too few Neutrons
compared to protons

Does not occur naturally or exist for
long

Will give off particles and radiation to
become a stable nucleus
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Radioactive

Means that particles give off radiation
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Undergoes nuclear decay

Nuclear decay occurs naturally in some
elements
Definition
 A nuclear reaction that involves emission
of energy or particle from the nucleus
 Results in a more stable environment
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Emits radiation

Describes the particles and/or energy
that are emitted during nuclear decay
Alpha, Beta, Gamma Rays
 What can they go through?

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Half-Life
The amount of time it takes for half of a sample
to decay
 Why does this matter?
 Read the paragraph that explains the half-life
of a radioactive substance on the nuclear
medicine sheet.
 *Notes:

a nuclide is a term for an atom that takes
energy into account
 A Geiger counter detects radiation

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To find half life…





There is a formula
y= ½t2
Graph data- hours on x axis and counts on y axis
Select any point- determine a value for counts/min
and for time
Take your value for counts/min divide in half and
then find the appropriate time
Subtract the new time from the original and that is
the half life
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Let’s practice

On your Nuclear medicine sheet pick any
date points on the graph or on the table…
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Dating Game
Read instructions
 Important points…

Remove heads up, replace with beans
 Put tails up and beans back in box
 Your graph should have two lines on your graph
 You have 30 minutes

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Homework

Isotopes Worksheet
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Day 11
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
Nuclear reactions
Nuclear Reactions

In the Middle Ages,
individuals called alchemists
spent a lot of time trying to
make gold.

Making an element is
possible only if you can
achieve a nuclear reaction,
which has more energy than
chemical reaction
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Different because
electrons
are not involved
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
Nuclear reactions involve either combining or
splitting the nuclei of atoms.
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Nuclear Reactions

There are two kinds of nuclear reaction:
fusion and fission.

The process of combining the nuclei
(lightweight) of atoms to make different
atoms is called fusion.
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Fusion
 Mass
of products is less than the mass
of the reactants and lost mass is
converted to energy
 Usually occurs on sun
 Using this in nuclear power plants is
still in the developmental stage
 Hydrogen bomb, also called a
thermonuclear bomb, utilizes nuclear
fusion
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Draw It!
Energy
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Fission

Breaking up the nucleus of an atom (usually
a large one)

A large amount of energy is released

Occurs in power plants and A bombs

Chain reaction could occur- must be a certain
amount of mass (critical mass) of fissionable
material
in close proximity for a chain reaction
186
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Fission (cont)
 the
mass of the products is less
than the mass of the reactants
 The
lost mass is converted into
energy (E=mc2)
 Ex
U-235 splits into 2 or more parts
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Nuclear Reactions
 Fission
and fusion are nuclear
reactions.
 Protons
and neutrons—the two most
important subatomic particles in the
nucleus—participate in these
reactions.
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Comparing Chemical and Nuclear Reactions
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Video
Have Known Sin- Atomic Bombs
 Fission and Power Plants

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Compare Fission and Fusion
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Domino-Chain Reaction
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Energy from the Atom

How is nuclear energy used?
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Day 12
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Using Nuclear Reactions
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Using Nuclear Reactions
Nuclear medicine
 Carbon dating
 Nuclear power reactors
 Nuclear weapons

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Nuclear Medicine

Radioactive isotopes can be used to detect
problems in organ systems


Ex.
Benefits:

Destroy target cells, such as cancer
• Cells are most susceptible to radiation during cell
division (cancer is rapidly dividing cells)

Mapping substances through organs
• Can show proper function or malfunction
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Nuclear Medicine

Disadvantages
Wastes must be stored in a special way until
it is no longer radioactive
 Cancer cell treatment damages healthy
tissue

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Using Nuclear Reactions

The age of some fossils can be determined
using radioisotopes such as carbon-14.
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It is possible to figure out the age of objects
made from plants or animals that are
between 50,000 and a few thousand years
old using carbon dating.
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Nuclear Power Reactors
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Nuclear-power reactors

Nuclear technology is used to produce
electricity

Energy from controlled nuclear fission is
used to heat water to steam
• Steam expands turns turbine which spins a huge
magnet which creates electricity
Difference in coal-powered and nuclear powered is
the heating up of water
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Nuclear Power Reactors

Benefits
Lots of energy from not a lot of fuel
 No greenhouse gas emission
 Used anywhere (unlike wind, solar, etc…)
 Non-reliance on fuel

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Nuclear Power Reactors

Disadvantages
Need specialized technology to refine fuel
 Can cause thermal pollution
 Storing process is complicated
 Wastes are transported from where it is
generated to where it is stored
 Can cause long-term reactive decay problems
 Three Mile Island
 Exposure of workers is sometimes fatal

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Nuclear Weapons
Video
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Works Cited
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mende
lejevs_periodiska_system_1871.png
 http://neolegacyandrew.blogspot.com/
2008/08/baskin-robins-ice-cream.html
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