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SB1a. Explain the role of cell organelles for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes cells, including cell membrane, in maintaining homeostasis and cell reproduction. KJ & Geordan 1) Describe the function of 5 individual cell organelles within cells. 1. Golgi apparatus: a flattened stack of membranes that modifies, sorts & packages proteins; 2. Vacuole: a sack used to store food & water; 3. Lysosomes: vesicles that contain substances that break down old worn-out cell parts; 4. Mitochondria: provides energy for the cell’ the “powerhouse”; 5. Chloroplast: organelles that capture light energy & convert it to chemical energy through photosynthesis 2) Explain how 3 organelles in a cell, function together to maintain homeostasis ex.(energy production, transport of molecules, waste disposal, protein synthesis , storage of genetic material and movement) cell membrane, golgi body, ribosomes; cell membrane controls what enters and exits the cell, golgi apparatus transports the needed proteins within or out of the cell; ribosomes makes the needed proteins for the cell 3) Describe how the cell membrane helps the cell maintain homeostasis. See number 2 4) Why do bacteria and humans go through cell division?(mitosis) to reproduce/replace body cells giving them the same exact DNA as cells that have died 5) Why are cells small? So that cell processes can happen easier and faster within the body SB1b. Explain how enzymes function as catalysts. Maleaya & Jordan 1) What do enzymes do within cells? They are biological catalysts that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in biological processes 2) What environmental conditions affect the rate of enzyme function? pH and temperature 3) What macromolecule is an enzyme an example of? Proteins 4) Describe 2 functions of enzymes within the human body. Saliva to break down food and help speed up reactions; in your stomach to digest the food 5) Describe the lock-and-key structure of enzymes and their substrates The key is the enzymes, keyhole is active site and lock is substrate. Only certain enzymes are going to bind with certain substrates. SB1c. Identify the function of the four macromolecules (i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids) Luis & Jesse 1) Identify the functions of the four macromolecules 1. Carbohydrates: store energy, provide structural support; 2. Lipids: store energy, provide insulation; 3. Proteins: transports substances, speed reactions, provides structural support, makes hormones; 4. Nucleic Acids: stores & communicates genetic information 2) Identify the monomers of each of the four macromolecules 1. Carbohydrates: monosaccharides; 2. Lipids: 1 glycerol, 3 fatty acids; 3. Proteins: amino acids; 4. Nucleic Acids: nucleotides 3) Identify dietary sources(foods) of macromolecules 1. Carbohydrates: milk, bread, pasta, rice; 2. Lipids: fats, oils, waxes; 3. Proteins: beans, meat 4. Nucleic Acids: anything that was once living 4) Identify the importance of each of the 4 macromolecules See number 1 SB1d. Explain the impact of water on life processes (i.e. osmosis, diffusion) Ahmad & Bre 1) Why is water considered a polar molecule? Because one end of the molecule is more slightly charged than the other. 2) Describe what elements make up water and what its shape looks like. 1 Oxygen 2 Hydrogen & it looks like Mickey Mouse 3) Why is water called a universal solvent? Because water can absorb and dissolve many substances 4) How do living things use water to get nutrients and get rid of wastes? Through the cell membrane cells allow waste to exit and nutrients to enter our cells. 5) Explain how the characteristics of water affect the movement of water in and out or within an organism (Explain capillary action in plants) water has the ability to move through thin tubes in the roots and stems of plants so that water and nutrients are delivered. SB2a. Distinguish between DNA and RNA. Cortez & Oscar 1) What are 3 structural similarities between DNA and RNA? They’re both made of nucleotides: made of a sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous base 2) What are 3 differences between DNA and RNA? RNA is single stranded, it has the base Uracil, & its sugar is ribose; DNA is double stranded, it has the base Thymine, & its sugar is deoxyribose 3) What are the functions of DNA and RNA? DNA is the genetic code; RNA is the recipe for proteins 4) Why is DNA considered to be a genetic code? It’s the instructions for life and it determines our genes and appearance. SB2b. Explain the role of DNA in storing and transmitting cellular information. Keialah & Shearifa 1) Describe where DNA is organized in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells: found in the nucleus; Prokaryotic cells DNA is found floating in the cytoplasm 2) Why does DNA have to replicate? In order to divide to grown and reproduce 3) What are the steps in DNA replication? Unwind, pairing of complementary nucleotide bases, formation of 2 new identical DNA molecules 4) What other process is DNA used in? genetic engineering, cloning, forensics SB2c. Using Mendel’s laws, explain the role of meiosis in reproductive variability. Teshauna & Jonah 1. What is the law of segregation? States that two alleles for each trait separate during meiosis 2. How does meiosis in maintain the correct number of chromosomes? Organisms produce gamete that contain ½ the number of chromosomes in sex cells 3. Explain the function of meiosis. to give genetic variability 4. What is the law of independent assortment? States that a random distribution of alleles occurs during the formation of gametes. 5. How does meiosis contribute to genetic variability? During crossing over & fertilization when gametes randomly combine 6. Describe how mendelian laws can be used to explain genetic variability Mendel followed various traits in the pea plants that he bred and analyzed the results and formed hypothesis concerning how traits are inherited. SB2d. Describe the relationships between changes in DNA and potential appearance of new traits including: Daniel & Martha 1. What are mutations? Permanent changes in a cell’s DNA 2. What can cause mutations to occur? When a cell makes a mistake during replication; changes in the DNA nucleotide sequence 3. List and describe 3 examples of mutations. 1. Insertion: when a nucleotide base is inserted at a random point in the DNA Sequence; 2. Duplication: when a base is duplicated or repeated in the DNA sequence; 3. Substitution: when one base is substituted for another 4. How do mutations cause changes in organisms? Depends on the mutation they either harmful, helpful or no effect at all. SB2e. Compare the advantages of sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction in different situations. Kierra & Daija 1. What is sexual reproduction and how does it lead to genetic diversity? Sexual reproduction = meiosis and it leads to genetic diversity through crossing over which happens in prophase I 2. What is asexual reproduction and what types of organisms does it produce? Asexual reproduction = mitosis; and it produces bacteria and body cells 3. What types of organisms go through the process of asexual reproduction? Most plants, bacteria, prokaryotes, some animals 4. What are 2 types of asexual reproduction? Binary fission and budding 5. Explain why sexual or asexual reproduction would be advantageous under different environmental conditions. SB2f. Examine the use of DNA technology in forensics, medicine, and agriculture. Explain that DNA technology is a useful tool in forensics, medical treatments and the production of medicine as well as world-wide food production. Justyn & Demario 1. What are 3 ways that DNA technology is used? Cloning, transformation, genetic engineering, gene splicing 2. What is DNA fingerprinting and what is it used for? Paternity tests, identify suspects, immigration verification 3. How can DNA technology determine possible evolutionary relationships between different species? It’s used by scientists using the fossils and other structures to determine the closeness of DNA relationships among organisms. 4. What are 2 different methods used to change the DNA of plants and animals? Gene insertion for foods which causes them to last longer and ripen faster. SB3a. Explain the cycling of energy through the process of photosynthesis and respiration Mosjae & Sidney 1. Why is energy needed by all living things? So that they can have energy to live, to do work, to pass on to the next trophic level 2. What are the different ways organisms obtain energy? The sun or another organism 3. What is the ultimate source of energy? What process is it used in? The sun, photosynthesis 4. How do we release energy contained in food? Cell Respiration, lost to the atmosphere, or passed on to another consumer 5. What 2 gases are cycled through photosynthesis and respiration? Carbon Dioxide & Oxygen 6. What is the form of energy used to do work? ATP SB3b. Compare how structures and function vary between the six kingdoms (Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals). Alondra & Olivia 1. Explain how all living things carry out common life processes differently. Describe some of the ways that cellular structure determines function. Different organisms breathe and obtain energy in different ways. A plant cell is created to protect and give structure whereas an animal cell is meant for fluid movement through the organisms. 2. Describe how organisms have specific cellular characteristics that determine how they are classified and how they carry out life processes. See number 1 3. How are organisms classified into a kingdom? (HINT: based on specific structural cellular characteristics such as cell type, presence or absence of cell walls and the presence of certain organelles or membranes that determine mode of obtaining energy, methods of reproduction) 4. What are the differences between unicellular and multicellular organisms? Unicellular- one cell; Multicellularmore than one cell. SB3c. Examine the evolutionary basis of modern classification systems. Ms. Haynes for Jose & Derick 1. Explain the theory of endosymbiosis. States that eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes 2. Analyze the evolutionary basis of the six kingdom system. 3. Explain how shared characteristics within a common classification may indicate a common ancestor. Organisms that share characteristics and that have more in common than not will be more closely related than those organisms with less in common. 4. Describe how modern classification systems are based upon biochemical (amino acids and proteins) and genetic evidence(DNA) that indicates evolutionary relationships. DNA evidence is used to compare organisms and classify them into the proper kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus & species. 5. How are cladograms and phylogenetic trees used to interpret evolutionary relationships? Because they both look at changes or shared characteristics between organisms over time. SB3d Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms. Charles, Montrell, & Je’Veon 1. Describe the similarities and differences between viruses and living organisms. Virus is a non-living strand of genetic material within a protein coat; a living organism is a living form that poses or shows the characteristics of life. 2. Why are viruses not considered living things? Because they do not contain all characterisitcs of life 3. Describe the structure of viruses. The outer layer is made of protein which are called capsids, the inner layer is genetic material which could be DNA or RNA, never both 4. Can viruses be cured? Why or why not. No, they can be treated but not cured. Because they mutate too rapidly in order to treat with medicines. SB4a. Investigate the relationships among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes. 1. Describe how organisms both cooperate and compete in ecosystems. Organisms compete for resources, shelter, and mates. They also live together in their environments without taking over each other’s habitats. 2. Explain how environmental factors (abiotic) influence the distribution and relationships of organisms (biotic) within ecosystems. The nonliving factors and living factors vary across the biosphere. Organisms that live in the same geographic area might share the same abiotic factors. The living factors in an organisms environment 3. Describe the ecological hierarchy of the levels of organization within a biome. From largest to smallest: Biosphere-all living things on earth, Ecosystem- the biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment, Community- all living things in a particular area or place, Population- all organisms living in the same place, at the same time, competing for the same resources, Organism- one member of a species 4. Explain how the availability of resources (number and types) determines the number/type of organisms that survive in an ecosystem. Availability of resources brings competition in which organisms will survive based on their adaptations best suited for the environment. SB4b. Explain the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems by 1. How does a food chain show energy flow? It shows where the energy is being passed to. Producer Primary Consumer Secondary Consumer Tertiary Consumer 2. How does the amount of energy change in the steps of an energy pyramid? The number decreases 90% for each level, 10% of the energy is passed on from the level below to the level above. 3. Explaining the need for cycling of major nutrients (C, O, H, N, P) Nutrients are cycled through the ecosystem in order to maintain stable conditions within an environment. 4. Explain how energy flows through ecosystems in one direction from photosynthetic organisms to herbivores to carnivores and decomposers. See number 1 SB4c. Relate environmental condition to successional changes in ecosystems. 1. Describe how human activities and natural phenomena disrupt the homeostatic nature of the environment(changes the environment) Water pollution, cutting down trees, air pollution, and destruction of habitats- all of these disrupt homeostasis of the environment by endangering animals. 2. Describe the stages of primary succession on a new piece of land without land present. Pioneer species grasses & shrubs small trees large trees 3. What are the causes of secondary succession? Floods, fire, volcanic eruption, natural disasters 4. What are the differences between primary and secondary succession? Primary starts from scratch and in secondary succession life starts over again. SB4d. Assess and explain human activities that influence and modify the environment such as global warming, population growth, pesticide use, and water and power consumption. 1. What do humans do to damage the environment? Air pollution, Acid Rain, and deforestations Identify and assess the impact of human activities on the environment. Losing oxygen, burning a hole in the ozone layer causing global warming. 2. Explain the human activities that contribute to global warming and describe the impact it has on the environment. See number 1 3. Explain the impact of increasing human populations on the environment. Fewer quantity of materials and renewable and non-renewable resources. 4. How can we improve our environment? Walking or carpooling, recycling, unplugging electronics not in use, less running water. SB4e. Relate plant adaptations, including tropisms, to the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions. 1. Describe how adaptations of plants increase their ability to survive.(HINT: vascular tissue, pollen, flowers, tropisms, seeds) Plants migrate from the closest mainland as seeds either by wind or the back of birds which is called biogeography. Xylem and Phloem helps get nutrients and water to taller plants giving them the ability to grow further off the ground. SB4f. Relate animal adaptations, including behaviors, to the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions. 1. Describe how adaptations of animals increase their ability to survive. Some species have evolved morphological adaptions that allows them to blend in with their environment, this is called camouflage. 2. Describe adaptations of animals that lead to survival in major terrestrial biomes. Longs necks for giraffes to reach food, hard shells for turtle for protection, hair/fur for warmth, lungs to breathe, color change for lizards, etc. SB5a. Trace the history of the theory. 1. Describe the development of the theory of evolution with the emphasis on how the mechanism of natural selection was developed. Evolution is the change over a long period of time. Darwin developed the theory of natural after visiting the Galapagos islands and studying the beaks of finches. Natural selection is a process by which organisms with favorable variations for a particular environment survive & reproduce to pass their variations on to the next generations. 2. Describe how a change in the environment leads to a change in those who are best fit for that environment. Organisms that are best fit for the environment will either adapt to the new environment or they will become extinct. 3. Explain the differences between Darwin and Lamarck’s theories of how life changes. Lamarck believed that un-natural characteristics would be passed on to the offspring even though it was not in their DNA. Darwin believed in natural selection. SB5b. Explain the history of life in terms of biodiversity, ancestry, and the rates of evolution. 1. How do genetic mutations cause adaptations and lead to natural selection? Genetic mutations can be passed on from parent to offspring through DNA. So the traits that are developed and best suited for the environment will be passed on. 2. Explain that the millions of different species of life forms that live on earth today are related by descent from common ancestors. DNA evidence, Morphological characteristics, fossil records. 3. Explain that the biodiversity of organisms is the result of more than 3.5 billion years of environmental change, genetic mutations and natural selection. With changes in the biosphere, organisms adapt and evolve to the environment which leads to greater biodiversity and changes in DNA. 4. Explain that evolution is a gradual process Evolution takes time and over time, organisms will change according to the genetic information and their environment. SB5c. Explain how fossil and biochemical evidence support the theory. 1. Describe the use of scientific evidence, such as the fossil record, in explaining the evolution of organisms. You can compare the fossils to other fossils or living organisms to see similarities in bone structure and to show where the organism evolved from. 2. How do different species structures (homologous, analogous, vestigial) show evidence of evolution? Homologous structure – similar structure inherited from a common ancestor. Analogous structure3. Explain how molecular evidence( DNA) supports anatomical evidence from fossils about the sequence of descent. SB5d. Relate natural selection to changes in organisms. 1. Describe why natural selection occurs. 2. Explain how favorable variations among individuals lead to an increased survival rate. 3. Explain how mutations may produce adaptations that are the basis of natural selection. 4. Identify the characteristics that influence the “fitness” of a species within an environment. 5. Relate adaptation to natural selection. SB5e. Recognize the role of evolution to biological resistance (pesticide and antibiotic resistance) 1. Explain how biological resistance (antibiotic resistance) may impact the evolution of a species of bacteria. 2. Describe how bacteria become biologically resistant to antibiotics. 3. Describe how antibiotic resistance is an example of evolution in a species.