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Transcript
Entanglement and Distinguishability of Quantum
States
Augusto Smerzi
INO-CNR, BEC Center and Department of Physics
Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo, Trento, Italy
e-mail: smerzi@science.unitn.it
Abstract
Entanglement is an algebraic property of quantum states. Its physical
interpretation is typically related to non-locality. In our talk we will show
that entanglement is physically related also with the concept of distinguishability of quantum states. Lets consider two systems differing by a
unitary transformation. Can we decide if the two corresponding states are
different with a finite number of measurements? This would be possible
only if the difference between the state probabilities is smaller than the
fluctuations of the results of the measurements [1]. It is therefore possible to define a statistical distance which is the number of distinguishable
states along a certain path in the Hilbert space.
We demonstrate that quantum mechanics put an upper bound on the
minimal statistical distance among two classically correlated states of N
q-bits. However, if the q-bits
√ are entangled, the statistical distance can
be reduced up to a factor N . In other words, entangled states can
evolve faster under unitary transformations than classical states. This
has important implications in the theory of quantum Zeno dynamics [2] as
well as in interferometry and, quite generally, in the theory of a parameter
estimation [3]. In particular, we will show that entanglement is a necessary
resource to overcome the shot noise limit and saturate the Heisenberg
limit, the highest sensitivity allowed by quantum mechanics.
Keywords: Entanglement, quantum interferometry, quantum Zeno dynamics
References
[1] W.K. Wooters, Phys. Rev D23, 357 (1981)
[2] A. Smerzi, arXiv:1002.2760
[3] L. Pezzè and A. Smerzi Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 100401 (2009); P. Hyllus, L.
Pezzè and A. Smerzi, arXiv:1003.0649