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Transcript
MIT Department of Biology
7.013: Introductory Biology - Spring 2005
Instructors: Professor Hazel Sive, Professor Tyler Jacks, Dr. Claudette Gardel
7.013 Solutions to Enzymes/Protein Structure
a) i) leu-thr-phe-ala-ser (unchanged)
GENERIC ENZYME:
ii) trp-tyr-lys + ala-phe
iii) 2 lys + 2 arg
Schematics of enzymes: (side chains shown in black)
ACTIVE SITE -
peptide bond cleavage
gly
gly
gly
gly
ile
-
asp
gly
protease A
val
phe
protease C
protease B
RECOGNITION POCKET specific substrate regognition
Schematics of substrates:
glycine, alanine
phenylalanine,
tryptophan, tyrosine
lysine, arginine
peptide backbone
+
small
long & + charged
large & hydrophobic
b) Matching them up:
protease A - large open pocket. Could be Lys/Arg or Phe/Trp/Tyr.
protease B - large open pocket with (-) charge at bottom. Therefore, Lys/Arg, which means
that protease A must cut after Phe/Trp/Tyr
protease C - small pocket. Gly, Ala.
c) Change the asp in the bottom of the pocket in protease B to a lys or arg.
d) It might still bind lys or arg, but if the space in the pocket were constrained, there might not
be enough room because glu is longer than asp.
e) The others are required to hold the essential ones in place. The also provide the correct
folding to bring these amino acids in close proximity and orientation.
S
S
GLY ALA VAL LEU ILE SER THR ASP ASN GLU GLN LYS ARG HIS TRP PHE TYR PRO CYS MET
G
A
V
L
I
S
T
D
N
E
Q
K
Figure by MIT OCW.
R
H W F
Y
P
C
M
AA sidechains, 7.013 CG 2004, 1
f) Protease A is a protein, therefore other protease A molecules can cleave it and thereby
inactivate it. Having casein around decreases the chance that a protease A molecule will cleave
a protease A molecule, because it will be more likely to cleave the more numerous casein
molecules.
g) The protease enzyme must be able to bind to the target amino acids. If they are buried
inside the target protein, the protease can't "see" them and therefore can't cut at them.
Eventually, the structure of the target protein gets so broken down that the inside amino acids
are exposed to the protease.
h) To protect protease A from degradation by other protease A molecules, bury all the
phe/trp/tyr inside the protein so that they cannot be recognized and cleaved.
i) The graph should show an exponential rise – the more enzyme, the faster enzyme will be
produced. Eventually, the enzyme will be degraded as in part (e). This is sketched below.
activ ity
tim e
AA sidechains, 7.013 CG 2004, 2